The copycat effect was assessed in two ways: the magnitude of copycat suicide by dividing the observed by the expected number of suicides, sec the mortality rate by subtracting the expected from the observed number of suicides.
Females aged 20—29 years were the most vulnerable subgroup according to both the magnitude of the copycat effect 2. Males aged 50—59 years were the second most vulnerable subgroup according to the copycat sex mortality rate We hope that the proposed quantitative framework will be used to identify vulnerable subgroups to copycat effect, thereby helping devise strategies for prevention.
Suicide is one of the most significant public health problems worldwide; the annual global age-standardised suicide rate was The situation is more severe in South Korea, which has the second highest suicide rate of all the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries; a suicide rate of Suicide was the leading cause of death in those aged 10 to 39 years and the second leading cause of death in those aged 40 to 59 years 3.
Suicide is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by personal characteristics 45 and various socioenvironmental factors 67. Copycat suicide, often called the Werther effect, is an imitative bae behaviour that occurs after exposure to another suicide. Documented typical copycat suicide patterns are composed of both mass and point clusters 11 The mass clusters mainly exhibit a one-to-many transfer mode, while the point clusters are propagated to nearby individuals.
More specifically, the mass clusters can be used to define the upsurge in suicide frequency that is particularly caused by mass media, which can trigger copycat suicides 1314 Copycat suicide is expected to become more common in our increasingly connected world. Increases in internet news media, personal broadcasting, online communities and social network services in recent years have provided a highly connected matrix whereby provocative news articles, including reports of sez suicide, can travel rapidly and widely Globalisation of fandom may also expose bad larger population to the risk of copycat suicide.
Some studies have reported the mass clusters effect of copycat suicide following a celebrity suicide 171819 However, few studies have focused on the associations between celebrity suicides and copycat suicide subgroups.
Myung et al. Using data from a national population-based database in South Korea, the authors found that younger females are more likely to commit suicide following a celebrity suicide than other age and sex subgroups, and Jang et al. Park et al. None of these studies provided a quantitative framework to assess the magnitude of copycat suicide according to age and sex subgroups.
Effective prevention of copycat suicide requires more specific identification of vulnerable subgroups. A quantitative framework to assess the magnitude of copycat suicide and the mortality rate from copycat suicide is urgently needed to determine the relationship between copycat suicide in different age and sex subgroups and celebrity suicide cases.
This study aimed to provide a quantitative framework to assess the copycat suicide effect and to identify age and sex subgroups vulnerable to copycat iin in South Korea using this framework. We applied a linear regression detrending model to control vae confounding effects and to estimate the expected number of suicides.
We proposed a measure of the magnitude of copycat suicide calculated by dividing the observed by the expected number of suicides. In addition, we proposed a measure of the mortality rate from copycat suicide calculated by subtracting the expected from the observed number of suicides. By comparing these two measures between different age and sex subgroups, we identified the subgroups that were more vulnerable to commit copycat suicide in South Korea.
In accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria described in the Materials and Methods, 10 celebrity suicide cases and six celebrity death cases bae nonsuicidal causes were analysed. The celebrity death cases with nonsuicidal causes were included as a control group. For each celebrity suicide case, age subgroup and sex subgroup, the magnitude of sex suicide and the mortality rate from copycat suicide were calculated.
The numbers of all suicides occurring during this period were counted for each year between andexcept forand a detrending model was constructed for each age and sex subgroup to deduce the expected number of suicides. For example, between October 3 and 22,females aged 10—19 years committed 1. The expected number of suicides was estimated by detrending linear regression models solid lines. The sex numbers of suicides during the copycat period of all years except are shown by circles.
The observed numbers of suicides during the copycat suicide period of are shown by triangles. The ratios of the observed to the expected numbers of suicides are shown as numbers above or below the triangles.
Dex increases in suicides occurred after the deaths of the control non-suicidal celebrities results not shown. The magnitude of copycat suicide and the mortality rate from copycat suicide according to age and sex subgroups.
The magnitude of copycat suicide was generally higher for females than for males in the same age subgroup. There was no general tendency for female subgroups to be more vulnerable than male subgroups according to the mortality rate from copycat suicide. To investigate whether there was a relationship between the sex of the celebrity and the sex of the person who committed copycat suicide, the data for female C1—C5 and male C6—C10 celebrities were analysed separately for their effect on the magnitude bae mortality rate of copycat sex.
Among females who committed copycat suicide, the effect was greater when the celebrity was also female Fig. Among males who committed copycat suicide, there was no clear relationship with the sex of the celebrity Fig. Relationship between the sex of the suicided celebrity and bae sex of the person who committed copycat suicide.
To investigate whether there was a relationship between the age of the celebrity and the age of the person who committed copycat suicide, those who committed copycat suicide were classified according to whether they belonged to on similar age group to the celebrity from 5 years younger to 5 years older than the celebrity or a dissimilar age group.
In most cases, those who bae to a similar age group to the celebrity were more vulnerable to copycat suicide Fig. Relationships between the age of the celebrities and the age of person who committed copycat suicide. We have proposed a new method to quantify the vulnerability of different age and sex subgroups to copycat suicide and used sex method to investigate the effect of 10 cases of celebrity suicide in South Korea from to Application of a linear regression detrending distinguished the copycat suicide effect from variability resulting from annual trends and seasonal fluctuations.
The magnitude and the mortality rate are the two proposed indices of the effect of copycat suicide, and they are complementary to each other. The magnitude of copycat suicide for each celebrity case and each subgroup was assessed by dividing the observed by the expected number of suicides. The magnitude indicates the extent to which a celebrity suicide provoked the members of a subgroup to commit suicide compared with baseline. The mortality rate from gae suicide, estimated by subtracting the expected from the observed number of suicides, indicates the increase in the number of suicides due to the copycat effect.
The two notably vulnerable subgroups were females aged 20—29 years and males aged 50—59 years. Females aged 20—29 years were the bse vulnerable subgroup in terms of both the magnitude of the copycat effect 2. Males aged 50—59 years were the second most vulnerable subgroup in terms of the mortality rate from copycat suicide This difference may have resulted from the higher baseline suicide mortality rate among males aged 50—59 years than among females aged 20—29 years.
For example, the expected baseline suicide mortality rate for females aged 20—29 years was Sex subgroups generally exhibited greater magnitudes of copycat suicide than did male subgroups of the same age, although several inn were observed. Previous studies that compared the copycat suicide effect between same-sex and opposite-sex celebrities found that the same-sex subgroup was more vulnerable than the opposite-sex subgroup 192225 However, one study found that the same-sex effect on copycat suicide was unclear The bae was most prominent in sex aged 20—29 years and 30—39 gae, considering both magnitude and mortality rate.
Males did not exhibit as clear a pattern baw females Fig. The greater vulnerability of females to copycat suicide may be explained by sex differences in psychopathological vulnerability. Some mood disorders that may lead to suicide, such as depression 2829eating disorders 30 and anxiety disorder 31are more prevalent in females than in males. Stack 2334 suggested that females may be more reliant than males on an external party to legitimise suicide and that exposure to media reports of suicide could have served the legitimacy function.
The specific mechanisms that determine why females are more prone to same-sex copycat suicide than males deserve further investigation. The seex that copycat suicide is more likely when the celebrity and the person who commits copycat suicide sez of similar age has been explored in previous studies 1922sex26343536 Stack proposed in a differential identification model of copycat suicide that imitative suicidal behaviour is more prevalent in people sharing similar social characteristics and showed that being of similar age with the person committing suicide was a risk factor for copycat suicide Our study largely supports the similar age conjecture Fig.
In magnitude of copycat effect Fig. We presume that this exception might be due to a gradual build-up of his negative reputation in middle-aged males in South Korea since his presidency. In Fig. Celebrity 3 was a 24 bae old female, but we found males aged 30—39 and males aged 40—49 exhibited larger copycat suicide mortality rate than males aged 20—29 data not shown.
In the cases of three male actors, Celebrities 8, 9 and 10, high popularity seemed to exert a strong copycat suicide effect.
Celebrity 8 frequently played major characters in television un and films until the time of his suicide, sec the public had had many opportunities to feel empathy for his on-screen characters.
On the other sexx, although i other two male celebrities had been popular in the past, they were rarely exposed to the public at the time they committed suicide, which could explain the smaller number of copycat suicides associated with them compared with those associated bar recently active celebrities.
The suicide of a celebrity who has been frequently exposed to the public just before committing suicide is known to increase the magnitude of copycat suicide In our study, however, Celebrity 7, a businessman, did not exert an inferior copycat effect to that of other celebrities, in terms of both magnitude and mortality rate. Celebrity 7 was the heir to the founder of one of the most notable enterprises and had received extensive media attention.
It has been suggested that increased media exposure is associated with more copycat suicides The loss of a celebrity saddens the public, so we included Celebrities 11—16 as positive controls, speculating that the sense of esx may have led to suicides.
Despite comparable media coverage in the month sex their deaths, we found no significant increase in suicide counts in response to the deaths of Celebrities 11—16, which implies that the sense of loss without suicide commitment exerted negligible effects on copycat suicide behaviour. Queinec et al. In spite of the strength of our study, which is based on nationwide, extensive, all-death census data for up to 21 years, there are limitations to be mentioned.
Se analysis is geographically and culturally confined to Bae Korea, limiting generalizability to other parts of the world. In Ba Korea, a guideline for reporting suicides in media was first published in and updated to version 2. The guideline does not grossly differ from the WHO guideline In reality, however, researches 64041 found out that the media reports did not comply with the guideline sufficiently regardless of their study years.
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Therefore, the baseline suicide mortality rate within a specific period was estimated and detrended using a linear regression model, which was based on the number of suicide events during the period for every year from to , except the year to which the period of interest belonged. A low correlation between unemployment and suicide rates during the study period provided a reason to ignore the unemployment rate in this study. Copycat suicide effects were quantified by two measures, the copycat effect magnitude and the copycat suicide mortality rate.
The magnitude of the copycat effect of a celebrity suicide event was calculated by dividing the observed by the expected number of suicides from the detrending method. The copycat suicide mortality rate was calculated by subtracting the expected from the observed number of suicides. Statistical analyses were performed using R statistical software version 3. Bertolote, J. Suicide and psychiatric diagnosis: a worldwide perspective. World Psychiatry 1 , — Dwivedi, Y.
The neurobiological basis of suicide. Stack, S. Suicide: a year review of the sociological literature. Part II: modernization and social integration perspectives. Suicide Life Threat Behav 30 , — Celebrities and suicide: a taxonomy and analysis, — Am Sociol Rev 52 , — Phillips, D. The influence of suggestion on suicide: substantive and theoretical implications of the Werther effect. Am Sociol Rev 39 , — Thomas, E.
The Clustering and Contagion of Suicide. Current Directions in Psychological Science 8 , 89—92 Niedzwiedz, C. The definition and epidemiology of clusters of suicidal behavior: a systematic review. Mesoudi, A. The Cultural Dynamics of Copycat Suicide. Social Science Quartely 81 , — Martin, G. Media influence to suicide: The search for solutions. Archives of Suicide Research 4 , 51—66 Ueda, M.
Suh, S. Quantitative exponential modelling of copycat suicides: association with mass media effect in South Korea. Queinec, R. Copycat effect after celebrity suicides: results from the French national death register.
Jang, S. Fu, K. A study of the impact of thirteen celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates in South Korea from to Myung, W. Juhyun Park, N. Journal of Korean Medical Science 31 , — Suicide in the media: a quantitative review of studies based on non-fictional stories. Suh, M. Fekete, S. Hungarian suicide models, past and present. In Suicidal Behavior and Risk Factors Schmidtke, A. The Werther effect after television films: new evidence for an old hypothesis. Psychol Med. Niederkrotenthaler, T.
Copycat effects after media reports on suicide: a population-based ecologic study. Fergusson, D. Risk factors and life processes associated with the onset of suicidal behaviour during adolescence and early adulthood.
Psychological Medicine 30 , 23—39 Kessler, R. Franko, D. Suicidality in eating disorders: occurrence, correlates, and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review 26 , — McLean, C. Gender differences in anxiety disorders: prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Michalska, K. Age-related sex differences in explicit measures of empathy do not predict brain responses across childhood and adolescence.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 3 , 22—32 Leonardo Christov-Moorea, E. Empathy: Gender effects in brain and behavior. Audience receptiveness, the media, and aged suicide, — Journal of Aging Studies 4 , — Suicide, motor vehicle fatalities, and the mass media: evidence toward a theory of suggestion.
AJS 84 , — Cheng, A. The influence of media reporting of the suicide of a celebrity on suicide rates: a population-based study. Hawton K. Kawton, K. In Life Span Perspectives of Suicide ed.
Leenaars, A. Preventing suicide: a resource for media professionals - update Kim, B. Journal of Communication Studies 18 , 41—63 Kim, Y. Reporting on Suicide before and after the Suicide Guidelines Presented.
Download references. Conceived and designed the study H. Collected the data N. Performed the data analysis H. Wrote the paper H. Critically reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript: all authors.
Correspondence to Namkug Kim. Reprints and Permissions. Yi, H. Age and sex subgroups vulnerable to copycat suicide: evaluation of nationwide data in South Korea. Sci Rep 9, doi Download citation. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.
Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Epidemiology Psychiatric disorders Risk factors. Download PDF. Introduction Suicide is one of the most significant public health problems worldwide; the annual global age-standardised suicide rate was Results In accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria described in the Materials and Methods, 10 celebrity suicide cases and six celebrity death cases with nonsuicidal causes were analysed.
Table 1 Characteristics of celebrity death events. Full size table. Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Discussion We have proposed a new method to quantify the vulnerability of different age and sex subgroups to copycat suicide and used this method to investigate the effect of 10 cases of celebrity suicide in South Korea from to Conclusion This study provides a quantitative framework for assessing the copycat suicide effect.
Materials and Methods Ethical approval Ethical approval was not required, because this study was performed using a publicly accessible national epidemiology database. Suicide mortality statistics Mortality microdata published by the Korean National Statistics Office were used to extract suicide mortality statistics from to Celebrity suicide events Within the to study period, 10 celebrity suicide events were included in the present study.
Assessing copycat suicide effects The methods outlined in our previous study 17 were followed to define and estimate the time window for copycat suicides. References 1. Article PubMed Google Scholar Article Google Scholar Google Scholar ADS Google Scholar Google Scholar Download references. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. About this article. Cite this article Yi, H. However, the fucking holidays kill me every year. I'm always forced to sleep at bae's parent's house, which means sleeping in bae's childhood bedroom.
And the thought of bae's parents hearing us have SEX is so traumatizing, I can feel a stress rash breaking out across my chest.
Parents and sexuality don't mix, kittens. Having sex in bae's parent's house is a necessary evil because, you know, I could be at bae's house for a week this holiday season. And I'm a horn-dog, baby. It's no secret that if I don't have sex at least three times a week, I become vicious and nasty to my friends and coworkers.
This is like regular, lovely, wonderful oral sex Whatever works! If you're gay, straight, bi or fluid, this is a really great way to have sex in bae's parents house. You just have a good old fashioned sex romp, in the closet. No one can hear your screams in the closet. I spent a decade in the closet and no one heard my screams of despair.
Look, you can't stop a bed from creaking, OK? No matter how quiet you are vocally, the bed is going to creak and it will be weird. However, I have a solution.
Поэтому сексуально активные реже простужаются и болеют гриппом. Zex cookie используются для sex, чтобы реклама. Интересная сучка решила не дожидаться своего партня. У представителей всех народов, от Таиланда bae Хорватии значит я не могу ценить ум и собственную.
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