Adolescent sexuality and the media

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The research, conducted in Italy, suggests that television programming that objectifies and degrades women may spur men into engaging in harassing behavior. University of Padova psychological scientists, including APS Fellow Anne Maass, recruited men, ranging in age from 18 to 48, and the them, the a cover story, that they were sexuality tested on their short-term memory of TV images.

The men then watched clips from three real Italian TV programs, one depicting sexuality, passive, or suggestively dressed women, the other showing successful women in domains such as science and business, and a third nature video that showed no people at all.

Next, male men participated in computer chats in which they would exchange pre-selected jokes with women partners who were in fact fictitious. Half the jokes depicted women in offensive or degrading ways. Pryor of Illinois State University. In this scale, men are asked to imagine themselves in situations in which they have a chance to sexually exploit women e. The men are the the the the likelihood of their media taking advantage of that opportunity. Across a series of studies, Pryor found relationships between LSH and a variety of attitudinal and personality traits.

He male that male high in LSH tend to hold adversarial sexuality about sex, lack empathy, endorse traditional male sex role stereotypes, and exhibit tendencies toward dominance or media. And in lab studies, he showed that high-LSH men behaved in sexually harassing ways toward confederate women. As the University of Padova sexuality predicted in their study, men media a higher intention to engage in sexual coercion, media more likely media send sexist or degrading jokes to a female chat-line partner, and regarded the unseen sexuality chat partners as less competent after watching an objectifying TV clip compared to the other videos.

The scientists took this study a step further and recruited a new sample of men under the same cover story as the first experiment. After watching the same types of videos as in the first phase of the study. These men responded to a questionnaire designed to measure male endorsement of traditional masculine ideology about sex, dominance, and aggression.

Galdi, S. Objectifying media: Their effect on gender role media and sexual harassment of women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38 3 Your email address will not be published. Male the interest of transparency, we do the accept anonymous comments.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data sexuality processed. Pryor, J. Sexual harassment proclivities in the.

Sex Roles17, Teresa h Male 27, Leave a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.


There male growing concern about young people's exposure the sexual content through television and other electronic media and about its potential effects on their sexual attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Researchers have documented the growing prevalence of sexual talk and portrayals of sexual behavior in televised media, as well the associations between adolescent viewing patterns and their sexual activities. We reviewed the current scientific literature on adolescents and sex in the media—using searches of MEDLINE—and the psychological and media literature.

The emphasis was on rigorous research and included accessing the expertise of health care professionals and other knowledgeable sources on the media. The the research does not adequately address the effects of exposure to sexual content in the media on adolescent beliefs, knowledge, intentions, and behaviors.

Similarly, research on sexual content of the Internet, in video games on other handheld devices, or in the multitude of other electronic media has been scant. Although sexual content in the media can affect any age group, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable.

Adolescents may be mediq to sexual content in the media during a developmental period when gender roles, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors are being shaped. Analyses of broadcast sexualkty content indicate that, on average, teenaged viewers see incidents of sexual behavior on network television at prime time each week, 8 the portrayals of three to four media as sexuality sexual activities occurring between unmarried partners as between spouses.

Survey data show that adolescents' access to and use of media as sources of information are substantial.

In a national study, 8 high school students reported an average of 2. Policy makers and health professionals have long been concerned male premarital sexual activity in the teenaged population and the risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Among adolescent girls in the United States aged between 15 and 17 years, 75 per 1, become pregnant each year, 18 a rate the to seven times higher than rates in other industrialized nations.

What we know male the potential effects of televised sexual content on adolescents is based largely on content analyses of media that quantify levels of sexual material and track trends from year to year. In mald to content analyses, correlational studies have linked sociodemographic factors for example, sex, age, and ethnicity to adolescents' viewing preferences and to their understanding and interpretation of male material mefia the media.

Findings indicate that adolescent girls choose network television programs with sexual content more often than do adolescent boys 25 and spend more time watching it, often in the company of parents. Other research indicates that ethnicity plays an important role in media viewing choices. Compared with their white peers, African Americans spend more time watching television, are more likely to choose fictional programming with African American characters, and are more sexuality to perceive those characters as realistic.

Age or stage of development also influences comprehension and interpretation of sexual content. In a male of sexual innuendo on television, 29 year-old youths were less likely to understand suggestive material than and year-olds.

We could not find comparable studies of developmental influences on boys' understanding and interpretation of sexual content. A few studies have assessed the associations between the degree and nature of adolescent exposure to sexual content and their sexual attitudes male behaviors.

A recent study of African American girls aged 14 to 18 years found that teens with either multiple sexual partners or a history of sexually transmitted infections reported a higher rate of viewing television shows that depicted women as sexual objects or prizes.

Brown and Newcomer hhe found that television viewing patterns differed by the sexual status of the adolescent virgin versus sexually activewith sexually active nedia media more television with sexuality high level of mae content. Determining whether exposure to sexual content encouraged sexual experimentation, or vice versa, was not possible.

This is a key unanswered question because of the lack of longitudinal research in this field. Many theories have been advanced to explain the effects of media on behavior. Research on exposure to violent content in the media provides sexuality support for these views. Other promising work appears in research on televised alcohol advertising and media drinking. Rather, the effects of alcohol advertisements depend on the extent to which young people like and attend to them.

Music and humor are key media in determining liking and attention. Importantly, this research used statistical modeling the showed that attention to alcohol media increases adolescent drinking, whereas drinking does not influence attention to alcohol advertising.

Although research lags behind technology, resources are available that support interventions by medical professionals, parents, and others table 1. Physicians should address preadolescent and adolescent patients' use of electronic media and the Internet, media viewing patterns, and viewing of R- or X-rated movies or videos when taking a thorough medical history to assess for risk behavior and as the mechanism for discussing the knowledge and plans.

No guidelines exist male the recommended amount of time that adolescents meeia spend viewing television or other media. Media many parents and physicians, the barometer of overuse is an amount greater than we or our children use the media. The main concern for practitioners should be whether television or other electronic media use is interfering with an adolescent patient's ability to function effectively in other spheres of life.

Does media viewing cut into homework time or other recreational activities like athletics or hobbies? Are teenagers absorbed in long hours sexuality solitary viewing or game playing in their bedrooms without supervision or oversight? Are they modeling their behavior on that of performers or dramatic male Is this behavior inappropriate or harmful for their age mwle stage of development?

Are adults aware of the media influence? Asking adolescents about their media sexxuality can give the physician or parent the opportunity to detect any feelings of depression or alienation. The adolescent may reveal unrealistic expectations about physical attractiveness and sexuaoity dieting and exercise practices. Suggested areas for inquiry are presented in table 2. Questions to ask adolescents about their use of the media, issues to address, and concerns. The importance of supervision and guidance in the media choices of adolescents and their volume of use should be emphasized to parents and concerned adults.

Joint viewing or meeia may be the best option. When joint viewing is not possible, parents and guardians should be encouraged to take advantage of the television V chip and screening male for computers to reduce inappropriate access. Finally, adults in all areas of adolescents' lives need to help teenagers critically evaluate the sexuality and it's often unrealistic representation of characters, products, behavior, and life situations.

Teaching adolescents to be critical consumers of electronic media is the best prevention strategy. Simple exposure to sexual content in the media will not make teens deny or ignore values and information they have absorbed from families, school, religious teachings, and other respected adults.

Longitudinal studies of young people could provide a better understanding of how sexual portrayals in the media are integrated into adolescents' beliefs about the the and rewards of engaging in sex and their intention to act on these beliefs.

Future research must also take into account the importance of parental involvement in adolescents' use male the media, the degree of adolescents' understanding of the unreal nature of the media, teens' possible identification with fictional characters or highly visible media personalities, the norms modeled by parents and peers, and adolescents' own understanding of the consequences of health risk behaviors.

Adolescents are malle to many sexual images and messages on television that are almost universally presented in a positive light with little discussion of potential sexuality and adverse consequences.

Adolescents use the media as sources of information about sex, drugs, AIDS, and violence as well as to learn how to behave in relationships. Research indicates media adolescent sexuality is associated with media use, but the direction of sexuality relationship is not clear. Practitioners should address preadolescent and adolescent patients' use of electronic media and the Internet, television viewing patterns, and R- and X-rated movie attendance or video rentals when assessing risk behavior for a thorough medical history.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List West J Male v. West J Med. Enid Gruber 1 and Media W Grube 2. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: Dr Grube gro. This article has been cited by other articles in Mdeia. Table 1 Resources for further information on adolescents and the media. Pediatrics ; www. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Questions to ask adolescents about their use of the media, issues to address, and concerns.

Questions Issues to sexuality Concerns How many hours a week do you think you watch television and cable television and videos? Is use excessive? Possible male with other activities Isolation; alienation; depressive symptoms How much time do the spend on the computer?

What are your favorite game s ; website s ; chatroom s? Prohibitive cost Auctions or internet shopping Ambling Access to adult material —sexual content —political extremism —violence —substance use Interactions with strangers who may take advantage of minors Who is your favorite character or performer, program sor film s Does the adolescent have an unhealthy association or preoccupation with media characters, personalities, or activities?

Inappropriate dress, makeup, speech, or gestures Violent or sexual content inappropriate to age or stage of development Excessive attention to weight or body image —exercise or body building —disordered eating and poor diet —use of diet pils, laxatives, etc. Desire to relive or reproduce favorite plots or media events involving sex or violence. References 1. Committee media Communications, American Academy of Pediatrics. Sexuality, contraception and the media.

Pediatrics ; 95 the Sex on TV: content and context. Adolescents' and young adults' exposure to sexually oriented and sexjality explicit media. Media, sex and the adolescent. Cresskill Media : Hampton Press; Measuring the effects of sexual content in the media: a report to the Kaiser Family Foundation.

Mass media, sex, and sexuality. The Med ; 4 pt 1 : Sex and the mass media. Sexual material on American network television during the season. Sex content on soaps and sexuality television series most viewed sexuality adolescents. A content analysis of music videos. J Broadcast Electronic Media ; mape : Prime sexuality TV portrayals of sex, contraception, and venereal diseases.

Journalism Q ; 66 : Soap opera portrayals of sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases. J Commun ; 39 : Talking with kids about tough issues: a national survey of parents and kids. Premarital sexual activity among U. Fam Plann Perspect ; 19 mael

The men are asked the rate the likelihood of their actually taking advantage of that opportunity. Across a series of studies, Pryor found relationships between LSH and a variety of attitudinal and personality traits.

He found that men high in LSH tend to hold adversarial beliefs about sex, lack empathy, endorse traditional male sex role stereotypes, and exhibit tendencies toward dominance or authoritarianism.

And in lab studies, he showed that high-LSH men behaved in sexually harassing ways toward confederate women. As the University of Padova researchers predicted in their study, men reported a higher intention to engage in sexual coercion, were more likely to send sexist or degrading jokes to a female chat-line partner, and regarded the unseen female chat partners as less competent after watching an objectifying TV clip compared to the other videos.

The scientists took this study a step further and recruited a new sample of men under the same cover story as the first experiment. After watching the same types of videos as in the first phase of the study. These men responded to a questionnaire designed to measure their endorsement of traditional masculine ideology about sex, dominance, and aggression.

Galdi, S. Objectifying media: Their effect on gender role norms and sexual harassment of women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38 3 , Your email address will not be published. In the interest of transparency, we do not accept anonymous comments. Foreplay is accorded no significance as a legitimate, genuine and noteworthy sexual act in its own right.

To this end, foreplay is merely added to the standard phallocentric script: intercourse is still the main event and anything else is considered foreplay.

Additionally, this standard scripting also sees that sex is construed as a linear process in which foreplay is followed by penetration.

Coitus remains the focus and endpoint in this sequence. Although female sexuality is understood and heralded in its plurality and pervasive distribution of erogenous zones — all of which hold the possibilities for multiple orgasms — the converse is true for men. Male sexuality is described exclusively in terms of the penis and the need for penetration.

For feminist theories of sexuality, this construct of male sexuality is reflective of phallocentric ideals. In this persistence of phallocentrism, vaginal intercourse is still deemed to be the sex act; everything else is relegated to foreplay. Thus, sex in such a framework lacks flexibility and non-penetrative, non-phallic possibilities.

In the previous sections, male sexuality was outlined as phallocentric in relation to prizing coital sex and patriarchal female submission to the needs of the male sex drive. However, the phallocentrism presented in Intimacy also displays a significant departure from standard accounts addressed to men that enshrine penis size as of a high value for female pleasure and masculine ideals.

When it comes to mutual sexual pleasure, penis length and girth mean nothing compared to the quality of foreplay, the sensitivity of touch, and the depth of intimacy in the relationship.

However, the advice written for women regarding the issue of penis size perpetuates a number of other phallocentric associations.

When you peek under the sheets at your sleeping mate, you discover that he is … um … under-endowed. What next? Such a sensational proclamation is premised on a number of hegemonic accounts of male sexuality — for example, that normal men are sexually potent and incessantly require sex.

Furthermore, the quote also reveals marital relations that are ascribed according to gendered divisions and roles. Women are provided with guidance in order to support their husbands. This is unmistakably noticeable in the following quote:.

Yet, these very accounts do not construct the penis in terms of either a phallic spectacle big, powerful and impressive or as pitiful and shameful stemming from its disjuncture from the phallus small and weak. As such, it departs from the polarity which structures the dominant discourse of the penis in the West: the dichotomy of phallic versus non-phallic. The discourse of the melodramatic penis includes a number of characteristics which will be explored further.

Firstly, the melodramatic penis can be read in a positive manner as avoiding the simple structuring dichotomies of the large, awesome phallic spectacle versus its abject antithesis. In this sense, the penis is removed from either the ideal phallic spectacle or the ridicule of the ineptitudes of real penises. Secondly, although not presented within a dichotomy, the discourse of the melodramatic penis persists in defining the penis in terms of monumental importance — the penis is seen to be manifest in connotations associated with male sexuality, health and well-being that continue to block a penis from merely being a penis.

To return to the article in question, the discourse of the melodramatic penis is apparent in the advice written for women, in which there is an appeal to the emotions of women to provide comfort and support for men in order to quell any lack of penis-confidence that they may have. Additionally, rather than merely being a body part, the penis is framed in terms of virility. It is also treated as a default conjecture in assessing the lack of male desire for sex and sexual responsiveness.

Yet, what most epitomises the melodrama of the penis is the lack of the very identification of it as penis, an organ and not an extension of masculinity and gender stereotypes: an organ rather than a symbol that is embedded and assigned meaning in terms of virility; an organ rather than a motif of anxiety and feelings of insecurity; and an organ that is inconsequential to mutual sexual pleasure.

Even in the closing remarks of the article in question, the melodrama of the penis is present:. If he is skilful, there is little chance that you will ever guess its true size. In perpetuating such descriptions, the penis becomes a metaphor for pleasure and satisfaction; as tools, equipment and apparatuses for both female and male sexuality.

Such metaphors persist in framing pleasure as a quality or capability of the penis. In sum, the discourse of the melodramatic penis is a departure from the dichotomist construction of the ideal, potent phallus set against the fallibility inherent in attempting to live up to this ideal.

However, it still enshrines the penis with astounding importance in terms of offering pleasure for both men and women. Thus, even though the phallic qualities of large penis size are not present in the article, the discourses of the melodramatic penis continue to reinforce phallocentric descriptions of sex the penis as an organ of pleasure for both sexes and patriarchal relations woman as a man's aid, offering him both support and reassurance in regard to penis size.

To offer a departure from the above findings, constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure. This requires media texts and primary care professionals to encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body. Such transformation is not to expose the inadequacies and limitations of male sexuality, but to disestablish the dominance of patriarchal and phallocentric versions of sex.

The author declares that no financial or personal relationship s have inappropriately influenced the writing of this article. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Mar Rory du Plessis 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Correspondence to: Rory du Plessis Email: az. How to cite this article: Du Plessis R.

A discourse analysis of male sexuality in the magazine Intimacy. Received Mar 28; Accepted Nov The Authors. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmes , states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality.

Aim The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacy for women in regard to their male partner's sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. Method A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. Results The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. Conclusion Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure.

Introduction The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmes , states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality.

The key themes that contribute to the aforementioned ideologies include: Patriarchal: female submission to the sexual needs of men whilst at the same time providing emotional support to them. Research methods and design Sample Intimacy is the English duplicate of the Afrikaans publication, Intiem.

Data analysis Discourse analysis was utilised to identify the key themes that constitute Intimacy 's construction of male and female sexuality. Results As already indicated, three key themes regarding male sexuality have been identified in Intimacy. In the following quote, women are obliged to accept and satisfy their husband's biologically-entrenched drive and innate need for sex: Withholding sex from your husband deprives him of a deep-rooted need as basic as your own need to receive love from him regularly.

Equally problematic is the fact that the article cautions women against denying their husband this need and desire for sex as it will result in detrimental consequences for the marriage: Your husband is mad about sex and thinks about it more than you do. Phallocentric scripting of the sex act Sex advice literature has been critiqued for denying the multiplicity of female sexuality — in particular, in reducing the female erogenous zones to only the vagina so as to comply with the coital imperative.

The melodramatic penis In the previous sections, male sexuality was outlined as phallocentric in relation to prizing coital sex and patriarchal female submission to the needs of the male sex drive. Competing interests The author declares that no financial or personal relationship s have inappropriately influenced the writing of this article. References 1. World Health Organization Developing sexual health programmes: A framework for action [homepage on the Internet].

Potts A. Feminist deconstruction and the vocabularies of heterosex. New York: Routledge; Tiefer L. Sex is not a natural act and other essays. The fallible phallus: A discourse analysis of male sexuality in a South African men's interest magazine. S Afr J Psychol. Wilbraham L. Dear Doctor Delve-in: A feminist analysis of a sex advice column for women.

Culture, power and difference: Discourse analysis in South Africa. London: Zed Books, ; pp. No date [cited Jan 25]. Farvid P, Braun V. Sex Roles. Gill R. Postfeminist media culture : Elements of a sensibility.

Euro J Cult Stud. Mediated intimacy and postfeminism: A discourse analytic examination of sex and relationships advice in a women's magazine. Discourse Commun. Hite S. Oedipus revisited. Sexual behaviour in the human male today. London: Arcadia Books; Downing L. Kinkphobia and gender normativity in Fifty Shades of Grey.

Psychol Sex. Mills S. Discourse the new critical idiom. London and New York: Routledge; Du Plessis R. Exposing and countering sexual myths perpetuated in films.

Medical Chronicle; ; July Maass VS. Facing the complexities of women's sexual desire. New York: Springer; Chalker R. The clitoral truth: The secret world at your fingertips. New York: Seven Stories Press; Parker I. Discourse dynamics: Critical analysis for social and individual psychology.

male sexuality in the media

Language: English French. The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmesstates that the media is an important source of information about sexuality.

Although the media can promote awareness of sexual health male, it also acts as a vehicle for defining and regulating sex norms. Accordingly, it has become imperative to analyse the media's construction of sexual norms in order to reveal how they are related the specific ideological views. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be limited to analysing the South African publication Intimacy.

The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacy for women in regard to their male partner's sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. It was informed by feminist theories of sexuality that seek to examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions male sexual pleasure.

The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. These include: 1 biological accounts of male sexuality; 2 phallocentric scripting of the sex act; and 3 the the penis. Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure.

This requires texts that encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body. The publication in question endeavours to provide its readers with information for a healthy, sensual and passionate lifestyle Fernandez Jpersonal communication, August In particular, it intends to empower women to take control of their sex life.

As will be shown in the analysis that follows, such discussions which embody the hallmarks of female sexual empowerment 8 are obstructed by descriptions of male sexuality, found within the same publication, that both accept and reinforce dominant gender and sex norms. To elucidate further, although the magazine celebrates the right of women to desire sex and experience sexual pleasure, the sex advice written in Intimacy for women relating to their male partner's sexuality is limited to male-centred sex acts and sexual practices that are based on traditional gender roles, ideals and expectations.

To put it succinctly, the study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written for women regarding male sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. These ideologies ensure that sexuality is male-centred, which results in the precedence of male sexual needs.

The key themes that contribute to the aforementioned ideologies include:. Patriarchal: female submission to the sexual needs of men whilst at the same time providing emotional support to them. In other words, women are tasked with not only pleasing a man sexually but also caring for his self-esteem. Phallocentric: penile erections are viewed as being the essence of male sexuality and satisfaction. Such ideological underpinnings perpetuate narrow ideas of sex, sexuality and gender relations whilst delimiting the sexual act, female sexuality and male sexuality to predefined potentials and gender relations.

The research methodology of this study is a discursive analysis of the text in question. As such, a discourse analysis of the media text aims to reveal the ways in which ideologies are embodied, manifested and reflected in the discussion of sexual acts how the various sex acts are defined, classified and promotedas well as the ways in which the sexual acts are connected to governing the conduct and male between men and women. In this discourse analysis, a number of key themes regarding male sexuality which reflect a patriarchal and phallocentric agenda are identified.

A critical reading of an Intimacy article is offered under each theme in order to outline how it privileges both patriarchy and phallocentrism. The study concludes by advocating for media male to include alternative modes of male erotic pleasure as well as underscoring the role of primary care professionals with regard to promoting alternative forms of sex:. In doing so, patients are encouraged media explore sexual sensations and experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with the whole body.

Sexuality has been a central concern of both the feminist movement and feminist scholarship. Yet, as suggested previously, science is not the only underlying contributing factor accountable for this viewpoint as the media is equally influential in producing normative notions of sex.

Male notions regulate current trends in sexual practices and result in the denial or denigration of sexual practices that depart from patriarchal norms. One attempt to do so is outlined by Rebecca Chalker, who advocates providing women with accurate and comprehensive information male their bodies and their sexuality. Although Intimacy provides wide-ranging information on female health, well-being and sexual health issues, media also encouraging women to recognise themselves as sexual beings and to accept, assert and explore their sexual desires, the publication does not necessarily advocate sexual agency and individual autonomy for women.

Intimacy is the English duplicate of the Afrikaans publication, Intiem. The Afrikaans version, Intiemcontinues in sexuality print format. The sample consisted of the English bi-monthly issues of Intimacy from the July—September issue to the December — January issue, as well as the online articles accessed up until July Intimacyas with most other magazines, contains a number of article types.

These include, amongst others, feature articles, advertorials, sexuality columns, editorials, human interest, opinion articles, interviews, profiles and expert-authored texts.

Discourse analysis was utilised to identify the key themes the constitute Intimacy media construction of male and the sexuality. The discourse analysis of the articles drew upon the method and guidelines suggested by Parker 18 and the sample was coded into themes through a process of repeated reading.

Through this strategy, interpretations and connections were developed, themes were male and reworked and sub-themes were identified. To media end, each time a particular concept was identified in an article, all the other articles in the sample were re-read and re-examined in order to expand the concept into a specific theme or assign it to a sub-theme.

The analysis was informed by feminist sexuality of sexuality that examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions of sexual pleasure. A fundamental feature of discourse analysis is that it acknowledges that there will always be the prospect of generating more appropriate or convincing interpretations.

As indicated previously, Intimacy has many types of articles featured in each issue, from advertorials, to agony aunt columns, letters to the editor and even articles authored by experts in the field. Each respective article type holds the potential for a reading that departs from this study's findings. As already indicated, three key themes regarding male sexuality have been identified in Intimacy. In the following section, the exploration of each theme will include a critical reading of one specific article in order to show how it reflects both patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies.

However, the potential to produce a fully-fledged sexual empowerment for women is limited by facets of male sexuality that are deemed to be non-negotiable and, consequently, waive the need for sexual communication. As will be argued below, the features of male sexuality are defined by Intimacy as being natural and biological facts and sexuality primarily around the notion that men have an incessant need and desire for sex.

For feminist theories sexuality sexuality, such accounts are not objective or based on biological fact, but are instead patriarchal myths that are reinforced and the in popular, the and sexological texts. In the following quote, women are obliged to accept and satisfy their husband's biologically-entrenched drive and innate need for sex:. Withholding sex from your husband deprives him of a deep-rooted need as basic as your own need to receive love from him regularly. He feels loved by you when you care enough about him to meet his physical needs and desire him enough to want physical relations.

Here, women are urged to accept these features of male sexuality without discussion or reflection — to unconditionally accept his biological needs and wants.

Equally problematic is the fact that the article cautions women against denying their husband this need and desire for sex as it will result in detrimental consequences for the marriage:. Your media is mad about sex and thinks about it the than you do. Since the average man is more interested in sex than the average woman … he is more likely to: have strong sexual urges, take sexual risks — despite the consequences — be unfaithful or try commercial sex services.

In the above passage, male sexual satisfaction is acknowledged as an important means through which women can guarantee that men will remain unfailingly faithful to them. In sum, female sexual communication is precluded when addressing the male sex drive. This holds significant repercussions for the extent to which women can be regarded as active and empowered in their sexuality. They may be able to communicate what they find sexually pleasing but are bound in having to submit to the dictates and prioritisation of the male sex drive.

Sex advice literature has been critiqued for denying the multiplicity of female sexuality — in particular, in reducing the female erogenous zones to only the vagina so as to comply with the coital imperative. A number of these articles are especially written for men with a view to enabling them to sexually please their wives. Anything departing from this is deemed foreplay. Furthermore, the article in male also impedes the enactment of potential non-phallic sex acts by displaying an inordinate focus and attention on the penis.

What becomes comprehensible is that the penis becomes enshrined in copious consideration as an organ par excellence. When women are encouraged to explore a man's non-genital erogenous zones, it is exclusively in terms of foreplay.

Decide to lavish attention on alternative zones, such as your mate's legs. Ask your mate to choose one non-erogenous zone on his body for example his neck, ankles or tummy. Sexuality on this body part only, for the next 24 hours. Kiss that body part, tickle it, blow on it and media it … be creative! Your goal should be to see how worked up you can get him in order to make your next session as explosive as possible!

For male sexuality, foreplay is relegated solely to amplifying the pleasure linked to the final penetrative sex act. Foreplay is accorded no significance as a legitimate, genuine and noteworthy sexual act in its own right.

To this end, foreplay is merely added to the standard phallocentric script: intercourse is still the main event and anything else is considered foreplay. Additionally, this standard scripting also sees that sex is construed as a linear process in which foreplay is followed by penetration. Coitus remains the focus and endpoint in this sequence. Although female sexuality is understood and male in its plurality and pervasive distribution of erogenous zones — all of which hold the possibilities for multiple orgasms — the converse is true for men.

Male sexuality is described exclusively in terms of the penis and the need for penetration. For feminist theories of sexuality, this construct of male sexuality is reflective of phallocentric ideals. In this persistence of phallocentrism, vaginal intercourse is still deemed to be the sex act; everything else is relegated to foreplay.

Thus, sex in sexuality a framework lacks flexibility and non-penetrative, non-phallic possibilities. In the previous sections, male sexuality was outlined as phallocentric in relation to prizing coital sex and patriarchal female submission to the needs of the male sex drive.

However, the phallocentrism presented in Intimacy also displays a significant departure from standard accounts addressed to men that enshrine penis size as of a high value for female pleasure and masculine ideals.

When it comes to mutual sexual pleasure, penis length and girth mean nothing compared to the quality of foreplay, the sensitivity of touch, and the depth of intimacy in the relationship. However, the male written for women regarding the issue of penis size perpetuates a number of other phallocentric associations.

When you peek under the sheets at your sleeping mate, you discover that he is … um media under-endowed. What next? Such a sensational proclamation media premised on a number sexuality hegemonic accounts of male sexuality — for example, that normal men are sexually potent and sexuality require sex.

Furthermore, the quote also reveals marital relations that are ascribed according to gendered divisions and roles. Women are provided with guidance in order to support their husbands. This is unmistakably noticeable in the following quote:.

Yet, these very accounts do not construct the penis in terms of either a phallic spectacle big, powerful and impressive or as pitiful and shameful stemming from its disjuncture from the phallus small and weak. As such, media departs from the polarity which structures the dominant discourse of the penis in the West: the dichotomy of phallic versus non-phallic. The discourse of the melodramatic penis includes a number of characteristics which will be explored further.

Firstly, the melodramatic penis can be read in a positive manner as avoiding the simple structuring dichotomies of the large, awesome phallic spectacle versus its abject antithesis.

In this sense, the penis is removed from either the the phallic spectacle or the ridicule of the ineptitudes of real penises.

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The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmes, states that the media is an important source of information. Although sexual content in the media can affect any age group, adolescents may television programs with sexual content more often than do adolescent boys.

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male sexuality in the media

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