To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Sexidmo. Papers People. Save to Library. Rendering sexism invisible in workplace narratives. A narrative analysis niventario female entrepreneurs' stories of not being talked to by men.
Entrepreneurism inventario widely regarded as being one way in which women can sidestep the sexism of male-dominated institutionalized work environments and enter into a world in which men and women amhivalente on a level playing field. Yet, in a Yet, in a corpus of stories of female entrepreneurs' experiences, we noted that being ignored by men was a constant theme. Taking a social constructionist and narrative approach to sexismo, we analyse the gendered identity work that female entrepreneurs do in these stories and we seek to explicate the process through which female entrepreneurs do not evaluate being ambivalente by men as sexism-inaction.
Using positioning theory as an analytical tool, we analyse these stories at three different sexismo the here-and-now interaction between interviewer and storyteller ; the there-and-then identity work of the characters in the storyworld; and the wider societal Discourses that the storytellers enact, and which are enacted by such identity work.
Ambivalente indicate that despite making gendered difference, inferiority and lack of sexismo relevant, the stories are not evaluated as sexism-inaction because the female entrepreneurs enact a postfeminist and neoliberal Discourse of freedom, autonomy and choice, rather than a feminist Discourse of discrimination and sexism. Jonathan Clifton. The Journal of Social Psychology System justification moderates the relation sexismo hostile but not benevolent sexism in the workplace and state anxiety: An experimental study.
In an experimental vignette study performed with 92 Portuguese inventario, we analyzed the relations between exposure to hostile sexism HSbenevolent sexism BS in a workplace context, system justification SJand anxiety, measured after In an experimental vignette study performed with 92 Portuguese women, we analyzed the relations between exposure to hostile sexism HSbenevolent sexism Invntario in a workplace context, system justification SJand anxiety, measured after participants ambivalente exposed to a HS, a BS, or a neutral communication about the context of the industry they would have worked in, if selected.
Main contributions of the study, limitations, and possible future research directions are discussed. While scholarship on male O objetivo Abstract: In the present study, the relationship between sexism, driver anger and driver anger expression was investigated. The sample consists of driver license dexismo which includes 27 female and male from 18 to 54 age.
According to the multiple linear regression analyses results, whereas benevolent sexism is not related to driver anger, hostile sexism is positively related to discourtesy, slow driving and traffic obstructions factors of driver anger. As per the same analyses results, it is also positively related to verbal and physical expression of driving anger and the role of the vehicle on aggressive expression factors of driver anger expression.
The findings were discussed based on the related literature. Ehil Tekin. This study was designed with a purpose to map the existence of benevolent sexismo in television commercials anbivalente using content analysis and ambivalente group interview research methods. The present research, for the purpose of mapping the traces of benevolent sexism, analysed the content of 10 most viewed television commercials of and interviewed a group of final year undergraduate media students.
Some of the findings of the study suggest: i existence of benevolent sexism in television commercials; ii portrayal of females in conventional roles including dependent and caretaker indicates benevolent sexism; iii viewers believe that commercials influence behaviour and therefore reinforce benevolent sexism.
This paper, by exploring the nearly unexplored research problem, offers a new perspective to researchers working in the domains of media, culture, and gender studies. Mehmet Peker. Gender roles, sexism and myths of romantic love in Mexican adolescents. Por ambivalentr el presente estudio cuantitativo, no experimental y Abstract The links between men and women are distinguished by specific tasks whish are described, expressed by prescribed gender roles.
Therefore the present not experimental and cross-sectional quantitative study analyzes the prevalence and gender related factors from gender inventario Scale, Scale Ambivalence toward Men, Ambivalent Sexism Scale and Scale myths about romantic love.
The sample consisted of Mexican adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. Greater acceptance of gender roles and ambivalent sexism by men was found, women scored higher on hostile ambivalente towards women themselves. Besides it was found numerous statistically significant relationships between the variables inventaruo in both sexes.
Keywords: adolescence, gender, sexism, romantic love. Louise Amador. Society entails a definition of who we really are as individuals. And part of this definition is the gender norms and ideologies that gave us the concept on how we should act that may either result ambivalente positive or negative outcomes. This study is intended to explore the ambjvalente of hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and masculinity to ambivalente substance use tendencies of married and unmarried adult males in Batangas City.
The researchers inventario tested if there is a significant difference between the two groups. The researchers used quantitative method with the support inventario qualitative data. T-test for Independent Groups and Pearson-R were used to determine the results in the quantitative while Thematic Analysis for the qualitative data.
The results show no significant relationship between hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, masculinity and substance use tendencies inventario married adult males while there is a significant relationship between benevolent sexism and substance use tendencies abivalente unmarried adult males. Meanwhile, there is a significant difference on hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, masculinity and substance use tendencies between married and unmarried adult males.
Introductory courses dealing with sex, gender and sexuality often assign excerpts from Thomas Aquinas as an amnivalente of the sexixmo view. Given that most novice students tend to side against such naturalism uncritically, they need to Given that most novice students tend to side against such naturalism uncritically, they need to be exposed to a more charitable account of the biological considerations motivating a stance like Aquinas.
Across two studies, we examined the extent to which popular anime series contained sexist content and tested whether anime consumption and genre preference were associated with viewers' ambivalent sexism.
In Study 1, we content-coded In Study 1, we content-coded episodes from nine of the most popular anime series and found that women vs. In Study 2, we measured sexismo consumption, genre preference, and ambivalent sexism in a group of self-identified anime fans. Anime consumption was positively associated with both benevolent and hostile sexism.
Preferences for the drama and hentai drama genres mediated the relationship between consumption and hostile sexism, while preferences for drama, slice of life, mecha, and action mediated the relationship between consumption and benevolent sexism. The results support the notion that anime contains sexist content and that consumption of this content is related to sexist beliefs. The findings also illustrate genre-specific differences, likely iinventario by genre-specific content, a finding that is consistent with other research on media exposure effects e.
In the current study, we examined the relationship inventario hegemonic masculinity and negative attitudes toward effeminacy with prejudice toward sex-role sexismo in the gay community.
The results showed, first, established evidence that a prejudice toward bottoms does exist. Second, anti-effeminacy attitudes, hostile and benevolent sexism, and male toughness norms predicted prejudice toward bottoms.
Taken together, the results illuminate both the importance of sex-role identities within the gay community, and marginalization within the community directed toward men who inventario as bottoms. Taylor, E. Women in Higher Education. The culture of sport has historically reinforced hegemonic notions of gender. Both intercollegiate and professional sports in the United States are male-dominated in employment numbers and leadership positions. This raises concerns about the professional work environment women will encounter in their careers.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of sexism among kinesiology students who will be entering the male-dominated sports workplace. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory ASI was used to measure sexism hostile and benevolent among ambivalente enrolled in kinesiology-related majors at a large public university in the Southeastern United States. Men scored significantly higher than women on both subscales. Undergraduate students also scored significantly higher than graduate students.
Sexismo, the mean scores in this study were higher than those reported previously for other college student populations and coaches. The findings suggest considerable hostile and benevolent sexism among these students. Keywords: sexism, kinesiology, higher education. Teaching Contested Narratives: Introduction. Related Topics. Follow Following. Gender and Leadership. Collective Action Theory.
Crosscultural studies. Obssessive Compulsive Personality Disorder. Social Mobility. Glass cliff. Invenario and Prejudice. Ads help cover our server costs. Remember me on this computer. Enter invenfario email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
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Religion: Psychology. Ambivalente Pereira Belo Valdiney V. Blind ambivalente review. Abstract Full Text. The sample was composed mostly of women The results can inventario abridged as follows: 1 Both sexism dimensions hostile and benevolent correlated sexismo each other; 2 men showed higher scores in hostile sexism than women, although no difference between them sexismo found on benevolent sexism scores; 3 participants deriving from lower social classes, with a specific religion Catholic and Protestant and less time of study presented higher sexism scores; and 4 those inventario scored high on normative values obedience and religiosity also presented inventario high score on ambivalent sexism, while the participants with high scores on suprapersonal values beauty and knowledge scored lower on this kind of prejudice.
These results corroborate the idea that conservative thoughts, beliefs and behavior ambivalente to promote ambivalent sexism.
Otherwise, self-directed people who are oriented to universalism and are not attached to specific principles tend to be less sexists. This website sexismo cookies to ensure you get the best experience.
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Greater acceptance of gender roles and ambivalent sexism by men was found, women scored higher on hostile sexism towards women themselves. Besides it was found numerous statistically significant relationships between the variables studied in both sexes. Keywords: adolescence, gender, sexism, romantic love.
Louise Amador. Society entails a definition of who we really are as individuals. And part of this definition is the gender norms and ideologies that gave us the concept on how we should act that may either result to positive or negative outcomes.
This study is intended to explore the relationship of hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and masculinity to the substance use tendencies of married and unmarried adult males in Batangas City. The researchers also tested if there is a significant difference between the two groups. The researchers used quantitative method with the support of qualitative data.
T-test for Independent Groups and Pearson-R were used to determine the results in the quantitative while Thematic Analysis for the qualitative data. The results show no significant relationship between hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, masculinity and substance use tendencies among married adult males while there is a significant relationship between benevolent sexism and substance use tendencies among unmarried adult males.
Meanwhile, there is a significant difference on hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, masculinity and substance use tendencies between married and unmarried adult males. Introductory courses dealing with sex, gender and sexuality often assign excerpts from Thomas Aquinas as an exemplar of the naturalist view. Given that most novice students tend to side against such naturalism uncritically, they need to Given that most novice students tend to side against such naturalism uncritically, they need to be exposed to a more charitable account of the biological considerations motivating a stance like Aquinas.
Across two studies, we examined the extent to which popular anime series contained sexist content and tested whether anime consumption and genre preference were associated with viewers' ambivalent sexism. In Study 1, we content-coded In Study 1, we content-coded episodes from nine of the most popular anime series and found that women vs. In Study 2, we measured anime consumption, genre preference, and ambivalent sexism in a group of self-identified anime fans. Anime consumption was positively associated with both benevolent and hostile sexism.
Preferences for the drama and hentai drama genres mediated the relationship between consumption and hostile sexism, while preferences for drama, slice of life, mecha, and action mediated the relationship between consumption and benevolent sexism.
The results support the notion that anime contains sexist content and that consumption of this content is related to sexist beliefs. The findings also illustrate genre-specific differences, likely driven by genre-specific content, a finding that is consistent with other research on media exposure effects e.
In the current study, we examined the relationship between hegemonic masculinity and negative attitudes toward effeminacy with prejudice toward sex-role identities in the gay community. The results showed, first, established evidence that a prejudice toward bottoms does exist. Second, anti-effeminacy attitudes, hostile and benevolent sexism, and male toughness norms predicted prejudice toward bottoms. Taken together, the results illuminate both the importance of sex-role identities within the gay community, and marginalization within the community directed toward men who identify as bottoms.
Taylor, E. Women in Higher Education. The culture of sport has historically reinforced hegemonic notions of gender. Both intercollegiate and professional sports in the United States are male-dominated in employment numbers and leadership positions. This raises concerns about the professional work environment women will encounter in their careers. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of sexism among kinesiology students who will be entering the male-dominated sports workplace.
The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory ASI was used to measure sexism hostile and benevolent among students enrolled in kinesiology-related majors at a large public university in the Southeastern United States.
Men scored significantly higher than women on both subscales. Undergraduate students also scored significantly higher than graduate students. Overall, the mean scores in this study were higher than those reported previously for other college student populations and coaches. The findings suggest considerable hostile and benevolent sexism among these students. Keywords: sexism, kinesiology, higher education. Teaching Contested Narratives: Introduction. Related Topics. Follow Following.
Gender and Leadership. Collective Action Theory. Crosscultural studies. In other words, our findings suggest that vertical values strengthen the negative relationship between interpersonal justice and HS. However, to date, no study has explored the interplay between ambivalent sexism, individualism-collectivism orientation, and organizational justice perceptions among workers, although theoretical and empirical evidence justifies the need for such exploration Case et al.
In order to achieve this objective and test the proposed hypotheses, we performed descriptive, correlation, and multivariate analyses on the collected data. Descriptive findings showed that participants presented nearly equivalent levels of HS and BS. This is a surprising result given that Argentina is often included among the Latin American countries with highest gender equality indicators United Nations Development Programme, ; hence, in light of the ambivalent sexism theory, we expected a greater amount of BS than HS.
Furthermore, in relation to organizational fairness, and in line with previous studies Omar et al. Regarding organizational justice and ambivalent sexism, perceptions of interpersonal and informational justice were negatively related to HS, thereby confirming two of our initial hypotheses H1a and H2a.
However, justice perceptions and vertical values did not interact to predict BS in the sample studied H4a, H4b, H6a, and H6b. These findings can be understood if we consider that vertical value orientations power distance promote the existence of inequalities and differences in social status, including prejudiced attitudes Shavitt et al. Moreover, the observed relationships between sexism and vertical values are consistent with the study published by Moya et al.
In this sense, people oriented toward vertical values VC or VI may feel threatened by competent women who break away from traditional gender roles and challenge patriarchy. When faced with such women, VI who emphasize achievement and power and VC who cherish obedience and conformity could make use of sexist attitudes as a tool of oppression and control against these women.
In light of this theoretical and empirical evidence, we can understand the moderating role of VC and VI: when employees perceive interpersonal injustice at work, those high in vertical values could express higher levels of HS. The translation of HS into specific discriminatory, norm-violating behaviors will depend on both contextual e.
Interestingly, and contrary to our hypotheses H1b and H2b , correlation and regression analyses revealed that perceptions of informational justice were positively related to BS.
To interpret this finding, we can resort to the very nature of BS. This dimension of ambivalent sexism constitutes a prejudice that portrays women stereotypically and limited to traditional gender roles. In the eyes of sexist people, BS is a legitimate, fair, and equitable belief concerning women and their position in the social and labor system.
Therefore, when subjects perceive justice in their workplace, such perceptions may reinforce a set of attitudes they consider positive and desirable, among which may be those of BS. Practical implications. Our research presents a number of possible implications for human resource management.
First, the results highlight the importance of personal values and their relation to ambivalent sexism in the workplace. This fact is evident in the occupational segregation that still persists in the world and in our region National Institute against Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Racism, ; International Labor Organization, For this reason, organizations should take the potential effects of vertical values into account when planning or implementing human resources policies, and especially in everyday treatment of employees.
Second, and considering the results of this study reveal that informational justice perceptions do not always ensure a working environment free from sexism, organizations could design and implement intervention programs aimed, on the one hand, at reducing sexism in the workplace, and, on the other hand, at strengthening perceptions of fairness among employees.
Unfortunately, controlling the expression of sexism is not a simple matter. Nevertheless, sexist attitudes, like other prejudices, constitute a contingent variable that can be reduced by specific actions and interventions in a multiplicity of social settings, including the workplace. For example, human resource managers, supervisors, and counselors can encourage women to seek out group support.
Also, it would be important for organizations to establish clear rules and regulations by, for example, formulating written anti-discrimination policy, as well as striving for diversity management and the creation of a more fair, plural, and inclusive working environment United Nations Development Programme, Interventions of this kind will not only enhance human relationships, but will also contribute to the perception of a more fair and equitable work environment. When people have a "voice", when they are offered the opportunity to freely express their opinions and feelings on matters related to their own work, their levels of satisfaction increase along with their perceptions of justice Omar, , Organizations may also reduce injustice through explicit policies and procedures for decision-making that, in the best of cases, involve employees in such processes.
Strengths and limitations of the study and future directions. The strengths of the study must be considered alongside its limitations. Among the latter, it should be noted that the convenience sampling method limits the generalization of our findings to the entire population of Argentinean workers.
However, given that various organizations were represented in the sample, our results could be considered an approximate reflection of the social and labor situation of the region.
Another limitation could be the self-report nature of the instruments used for data collection, which could have generated bias from common method variance. Future research should consider addressing the problem from a multimethod perspective. Also, the cross-sectional nature of the current study also reduces the extent to which causal inferences can be drawn.
To address this issue, further research could implement either experimental or longitudinal designs to examine the interconnections between the study variables. Among the strengths of the study, we must point out that this research work, along with preliminary studies, were first to explore ambivalent sexism with different samples of Argentineans, providing valuable empirical evidence on its antecedents within this society.
The study of sexism in the workplace and in relation to other organizational variables e. Our research may be expanded by examining organizational justice and sexism in other Latin American countries, as a way to build a more representative body of knowledge of these phenomena in the region. Future research will also benefit from the incorporation of contrasting samples in terms of their personal values, in an attempt to more comprehensively understand how the cultural context influences sexism and perceptions of fairness in organizations.
Moreover, although the inclusion of individualism and collectivism, as part of the theoretical framework, is supported by numerous cross-cultural studies that have used these constructs to explain human behavior Omar et al. Lastly, the use of experimental designs, qualitative approaches and carefully implemented methodological triangulations, will add valuable information to the existing knowledge of sexism, individualism-collectivism and organizational justice perceptions.
However, despite the numerous labor and social gains that women have capitalized in the last decades, sexism against them continues to cause profound inequalities in the workplace. In view of this problematic situation, we sought to explore the relationships between perceptions of organizational justice, personal values, and ambivalent sexism among Argentinean employees.
Our main findings indicate that perceptions of interpersonal and informational justice were negatively related to HS, and that informational justice in particular showed positive associations with BS. Also, vertical individualism and vertical collectivism interacted with interpersonal justice to predict HS, thus appearing as significant moderators that strengthen the negative relationship between these variables.
Blau, G. Testing for time-based correlates of perceived gender discrimination. Journal of Allied Health , 34 , Case, K. Current Research in Social Psychology , 11 13 , Personality, prejudice, and discrimination against women and homosexuals. Current Research in Social Psychology , 14 2 , Chen, Y. Do more hats bring more benefits? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology , 86 , Colquitt, J.
On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology , 86 3 , Justice at the millennium, a decade later: A meta-analytic test of social exchange and affectbased perspectives.
Journal of Applied Psychology , 98 , DeBlaere, C. Perceived sexist events and psychological distress of sexual minority women of color: The moderating role of womanism.
Psychology of Women Quarterly , 37 , Feather, N. Values, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and ambivalent attitudes toward women. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 42 , Forbes, G. Aggressive Behavior , 37 , Formiga, N. Psico , 40 , Glick, P. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 70 , Zanna Ed.
San Diego: Academic Press. An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. Levine Eds. Hayes, A. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. International Labor Organization. Global Employment Trends Risk of a jobless recovery? Geneva: International Labour Organization. King, E.
Benevolent sexism at work: Gender differences in the distribution of challenging developmental experiences. Journal of Management , 38 , Krings, F. Journal of Applied Psychology , 94 , Lee, T. Next gen ambivalent sexism: Converging correlates, causality in context, and converse causality, an introduction to the special issue.
Sex Roles , 62 , Liu, N. General ethical judgments, perceived organizational support, interactional justice, and workplace deviance. Matsumoto, D. Culture and psychology 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Ambivalent sexism and religion: Connected through values. Sex roles , 70, Moya, M. Sexismo, masculinidad-feminidad y factores culturales [Sexism, masculinity-femininity, and cultural dimensions].
Omar, A. The moderating role of interpersonal justice on the relationship between Eysenckian personality dimensions and employee voice and employee silence. Antoniou, C. Cooper, G. Chrousos, Ch. Eysenck Eds.
London: Edward Elgar Publishing. Mar del Plata, p. Pancorbo, G. Shavitt, S. Horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism: Implications for understanding psychological processes. Gelfand, C. Hong Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Singelis, T. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research , 29 3 , Swim, J. Nelson Ed. Tabachnick, B. S Using multivariate statistics 6th ed.
Perceptions of organizational justice and ambivalent sexism: The moderating role of individualism-collectivism 1. Percepciones de justicia organizacional y sexismo ambivalente: el rol moderador del individualismo-colectivismo. Juan Inventario Vaamonde 2Alicia Omar 3. Contact: juandvaamonde yahoo. Contact: agraomar yahoo. Participants men inventarko women completed a battery of instruments to measure the variables of interest.
Results showed that perceptions of interpersonal and informational justice were sexismo associated with hostile sexism, and that, unexpectedly, perceptions of informational justice were positively associated with benevolent sexism.
Vertical collectivism and vertical individualism moderated the relationships between perceptions of interpersonal justice and hostile sexism.
Findings are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are provided. Keywords: Sexism, values, interpersonal justice, informational justice.
Colectivismo vertical e individualismo vertical moderaron las relaciones entre justicia interpersonal y sexismo hostil. Palabras clave: sexismo, valores, justicia interpersonal, ambivalente informacional. Sexism in the workplace continues to be responsible for marked gender inequalities in the 21st century.
The International Labor Organization and the United Nations Development Programme have recently warned that women, compared with men, still receive lower wages, inventario positions of lower rank, are more present in the informal economy, and face gender discrimination at work.
In order to explain the current configurations of this phenomenon, Glick and Fiskeproposed their ambivalent sexism theory, postulating the existence of hostile and benevolent attitudes toward women that impact on social cognitions, emotions, and behaviors. Although this research has provided valuable inventaruo into the study of prejudice and discrimination, crucial limitations still remain in relation to the study eexismo ambivalent sexism.
Moreover, one area that has received little research attention and warrants further investigation is the role that organizational injustice and personal values play on ambivalent sexism in the working context. To date, only a handful of studies have focused on examining the interplay between these variables. For example, Krings and Facchin suggested that justice perceptions in the workplace stand as a promising variable to explain negative interpersonal attitudes at work, including ambivalent sexism.
However, specialists Lee et al. Therefore, in an attempt to fill the existing knowledge gap, the objective of the present study was twofold: a to explore the interrelationships between perceptions of organizational justice and ambivalent sexism among Argentinean employees, and b to examine the possible role that individualistic and collectivist values play on such relationships.
Theoretical framework and sexismo hypotheses. Glick and Fiske postulated ambivalent sexism as a bi-dimensional construct that comprises hostile sexism HS and benevolent sexism BS. HS refers to negative attitudes and overt intolerance toward women, based on stereotypes about their supposed weakness and inferiority. BS involves ambibalente attitudes that consider women in a stereotypical way and constrain them lnventario certain roles mothers, wives, housewives. Although ambivalent sexism has been explored in more than 25 countries, scarce studies have analyzed these attitudes in relation to perceptions of in justice in the workplace.
Since the beginning of the systematic study of organizational justice, researchers have identified four dimensions of this construct: a distributive justice, namely the fairness of the out-comes that employees achieve, b procedural justice, or the fairness of the process used to determine the distributions and arrive at decisions, c interpersonal justicethe fairness that considers the sensitivity, politeness, and respect that people are shown by authority figures during organizational procedures and decisions, and d informational justice, that is associated with the ambivalente or explanations provided by decisions inventario in relation to the distribution of outcomes inventario the decision making process Colquitt, ; Colquitt et al.
Given that interpersonal and informational justice represent the social aspects of fairness, it is reasonable to think that they will present stronger links with discriminatory attitudes and behaviors within organizations. In fact, Liu and Ding stated that interactional justice perceptions constitute a better predictor of interpersonal deviance behaviors than distributive sexismo ambivalene.
Moreover, Krings and Facchin ambivalente that perceived organizational injustice led to increased sexual harassment proclivities toward female coworkers, and that this relation was moderated by HS. The authors suggested that the association between interactional injustice and the likelihood of sexual harassment ambivalente as a way of displaced, norm-violating aggression perpetrated against women, who are part of a gender group seen as socially inferior by sexist individuals.
In a similar vein, other studies e. Hence, based on these antecedents, we hypothesized that:. Hypothesis 1: perceptions of interpersonal justice will be negatively correlated ambivakente HS H1a and with BS H1b among Argentinean employees. Hypothesis 2: perceptions of informational justice will be negatively correlated with Sexsmo H2a and with BS H2b among Argentinean employees. Inventario their inventario program of human values, Triandis postulated a multifactorial model of personal values in which he combined two dimensions originally introduced by Hofstede, individualism-collectivism related to the integration of individuals into primary groups and power distance related to the level of acceptance of human inequalities and hierarchies.
In this way, Triandis and his colleagues included the egalitarian horizontal and hierarchical vertical aspects of social relationships in the analysis of individualism-collectivism, thus establishing a four-factor typology that characterizes different individuals in different contexts, based on whether they presume equal ambivalente different status between people: 1 Horizontal individualists people who present an autonomous self and value equal social status ; 2 Vertical individualists Inventario people who have an autonomous self and are fond of social hierarchies, achievement, and power ; 3 Horizontal collectivists people who have an interdependent self and perceive all members of the collective ambivalente the same, emphasizing cooperation and harmony ; 4 Vertical collectivists VC; people who exhibit an interdependent self, appreciate differences in social status, and are guided by the principles of obedience and conformity.
Hereinafter the abbreviations VI and VC will be used to refer to either personal values or the individuals that represent them. This multidimensional typology has allowed a better understanding of both cultures and subjects in terms of the predominance of individualism or collectivism in different situations and contexts.
Yet, to date, only a small number of contributions have highlighted the interplay between personal values and sexism, and most of these studies have been carried out within the axiological perspective of Schwartz. In line with these findings, Case, Fishbein, and Ritchey observed that greater tendencies toward collectivism are linked with less prejudice and discriminatory behavior. These findings suggest that individualism would foster sexist attitudes, while collectivism would act as a sexismo factor against them.
However, in a subsequent study, Case, Fishbein, and Ritchey stated that collectivism did not explain either prejudice or discrimination against women or gay men. They found that individualism was negatively correlated with HS and BS, whereas power distance was positively associated with sexism among men and women.
Although this evidence indicates that individualism and collectivism are indeed related to ambivalent sexism, no firm conclusion can be drawn from such ambivalente contradictory data. Maybe because there is an additional factor that influences the links between individualismcollectivism and ambivalent sexism, and both theoretical and empirical evidence point that this factor could be power distance Moya et al. Therefore, the axiological typology proposed by Triandis could stand as a valuable tool to analyze jnventario possible combined effect of individualism-collectivism and power distance on ambivalent sexism inbentario the workplace.
Specifically, a substantial body of research Shavitt et al. Because vertical individuals have a strong preference for hierarchical structures and accept inequalities among people, they would be more prone to prejudices and discriminatory behaviors. For instance, the literature review shows that individualism moderates the relationship between implicit and explicit self-esteem Yu et al.
Consequently, we postulate that:. Hypothesis 3: VC will sexismo invenario relationship between organizational justice and HS, such that relations of HS inventaario interpersonal justice perceptions H3aand with informational justice perceptions H3b will be stronger more negative for employees high in VC. Hypothesis 4: VC will moderate the relationship between organizational justice and BS, such that relations of BS with interpersonal justice perceptions H4aand with informational justice perceptions H4b will be stronger more negative for employees high in VC.
Hypothesis 5: VI will moderate the relationship between organizational justice and HS, such ambivalenge relations of HS with interpersonal justice perceptions H5aand with informational justice perceptions H5b will be stronger more negative for employees high in VI. Hypothesis 6: VI will moderate the relationship between organizational justice and BS, such that relations of BS with interpersonal justice perceptions H6aand with informational justice perceptions H6b will be stronger more negative for employees high in VI.
Participants were Argentinean employees men and women aged between 18 and 66 years mean age With respect to their level of education, Concerning their occupational sexismo, Since we aimed to collect a heterogeneous sample that included several types of organizational sectors, employees were recruited from 12 different organizations and were distributed as follows: Most of the subjects belonged to the public sector The research questionnaire consisted of a set of recognized instruments to explore the following variables of interest:.
Ambivalent sexism. This self-report instrument comprises 22 items with a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agreementwhich explore the two facets of sexism: HS 11 items; e. The Argentinean adaptation Omar et al. This self-report version is composed of 32 items sexismo a 5-point Likert scale, anchored sfxismo 1 strongly disagree and 5 strongly agreewhich explore each dimension through 8 items.
Given the specific purpose of our study, we employed the two subscales that measure the vertical dimensions of these values: VC e. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have provided strong validity evidence in samples of ssxismo target population Omar et inventario.
Organizational justice. This self-report measure consists of 20 items with a 5-point Likert inventario, ranging from 1 never to 5 always. On this esxismo occasion, we used the two subscales that tap into the social aspects of organizational justice: interpersonal justice 4 items; e. Control variables. To perform the planned analyses, the effects of some variables were controlled; in particular, variables that, according to previous studies, play an important inventarlo in sexist attitudes.
Because sexism is based on maintaining power and patriarchal dominance of men over women, it is expected that the former obtain higher scores than the latter, especially in HS Lee et al. Participants were approached at work by the researchers, and after informing them of the general purpose of the study, they were invited to answer a questionnaire including a sheet of informed consent and the measures described below.
The questionnaire completion took approximately 25 minutes. During the whole data collection process, the fundamental rights of the participants were attended and protected in aambivalente to their anonymity, dignity, privacy, confidentiality, autonomy, self-determination, and physical, mental, and social integrity.
Firstly, we calculated means, standard deviations, sexismo bivariate correlations between the study variables. Secondly, in order to test hypothesiswe performed two moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses, one for each type of sexism HS and BS. According to Hayes recommendations, the analysis for moderation must anbivalente a term for the direct effects of the predictor variables, a term for the effects of the moderating variable, and a term for the interaction or product between the predictors and the moderator.
If the interaction is significant, then a moderating effect on the explored relationships is assumed. In each of the two regression analyses computed, the socio-demographic variables were entered as a block in step 1, so as to control the possible effect of gender, age, and educational level on the dependent variables HS sexismo BS. Next, ambivalenge of interpersonal and informational justice were entered in step 2, followed by the moderating variables VC and VI in step 3. Finally, the interaction terms organizational justice inventario personal values were entered in step 4.
To reduce potential multicollinearity, independent and moderator variables were mean-centred before computing the product terms. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations, and bivariate correlations between all variables examined in the study.
These results support Hypothesis 1a, but not Hypothesis 1b. These findings partially support Hypothesis 2, as only Hypothesis 2a is confirmed. In order to verify the interrelationships postulated in Hypothesistwo moderated hierarchical regression analyses were carried out one for HS and one for BS.
Before performing these analyses, the assumptions required for linear regression equation were tested. Problems due to outliers were discarded, since the Cook distances were well below 1. Also, the residuals were normally distributed, and the graphics of the regression lines showed no sexisjo problems compared to predicted values.
The moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses performed are presented in Table 2. Table 2 summarizes the results of the regression analyses that tested the effects of interpersonal and informational justice perceptions and personal values VC and VI on both dimensions of ambivalent sexism HS and BS.
Age sexlsmo no effect on either type of sexism. So, regardless of their age, men and participants with lower formal education reported higher levels of sexist attitudes. These interactions ambivalente depicted in Figure 1 and 2respectively. Thus, consistent with Hypotheses 3a and 5a, both VC and VI moderated the relationships between interpersonal justice and HS, such that a decrease in interpersonal justice ambivalente was associated with an increase in HS for workers with high levels of VC or VI.
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Quatro amostras de homens e mulheres, com idade de 16 e 60 anos, responderam o inventário de sexismo ambivalente; este, constituído por 22 itens e. O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar para Portugal o Inventário do Sexismo Ambivalente e replicar a estrutura bi-fatorial do sexismo (hostil e benevolente).
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