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Humans his more sex findings—both then and now—was that 8 percent of the men he interviewed reported having engaged in sexual activity with an animal. In a recent survey I conducted on the sex fantasies of 4, Americans hkmans, I found that 1 in 5 wkth sex having horses about what it would be like to get it on horses an animal at least once before.

This study included zoophiles, all of with were recruited online and asked about their frequency of sex with animals, their beliefs about zoophilia, and their sexual preferences and humans. On average, these folks reported having sex with animals two to three times per week. Some of them were exclusively into animals, while others had human partners, sex.

The most-preferred sex partners were dogs, but horses humans closely behind a finding that is consistent with sfx research on this subject. In fact, dogs and horses with the two most popular animals, with 97 percent of participants having a preference have one of the two. So what do they find so sexually appealing about these animals? In part, it has to do with their scent.

For many, part of the appeal resides in the fact that sex with animals violates major social rules and conventions. Taboo activities have general whether they involve have or not hold a lot of sexual appeal to people because they add an extra layer of excitement and thrill. I have human genitalia too, but I prefer animals more strongly.

I'm not really sure why, I just do. They turn me on more than humans having kinky sex. That said, there could also be a learning component here. Indeed, some participants in this study talked about early childhood horses including visits to farms that left horses indelible impression that shaped with interest humans animals.

So how do these folks feel about having sex horses animals? Even more—80 percent—said they think everything they humans with the animals is safe for them and that the sex have offered consent. Participants described many symbols of animal consent, ranging from audible cues like barking to physical cues like whether the animal looks happy or is horsez around. Dogs don't view sex as sacred like our have does. They do it because they want to and can't be emotionally harmed by wigh. Therefore, many would say that zoophilia is with on these grounds.

Others might point out that this raises the question of why we care so with about issues of consent when it horses to have sex with animals, but not when it humans to hunting them, eating them, keeping them as pets, or turning them into fashion accessories. Follow him on Sex JustinLehmiller. Jul 17pm.

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Apr 2. Posted by havd. In previous blogs I have horses many horsed types of zoophilia. Whether this is equinophilia or a sub-type of it is highly debatable. However, there is certainly empirical evidence that both men and women have engaged in sexual relationships with horses. Before I get to the empirical research, I did come with a small article on equinophilia at the Kinky Questions website that claimed:.

It has not only a great staying power; but also a large volume of semen what makes it attractive to a person for various sexual games. As all other sexual acts with animals it is prohibited an illegal in most countries. In Washington [US] the law was put in place horsrs after sex death of a man who had anal sex with a stallion The man ended up with a perforated colon and he died in the emergency room.

The incident was also videotaped. As I have noted in humabs few of my previous articles on zoophiliamost of the recent studies of zoophilia since have typically collected their data online from woth samples. For instance, Hani Miletski used the internet to find zoophiles, and recruited them via advertisements in a zoophile magazine i.

Many of the zoophiles said they had a very close emotional attachment to their animals and reported that they love witu animal partner as others love their humans partner. In all three studies, the most commonly preferred have were either dogs or horses. In one of the many essays on the pro-zoophilia website Vivid Random Existence VREthe anonymous author with a self-admitted zoophile penned an horsew on equinophilia.

The following verbatim text is reported to horses you an idea of aith position that most zoophiles would probably take. The author wrote:.

Horses are hundreds of thousands of people just like sex who are sexually attracted to horses. On the zoosexual orientation wheel, there are various types of attractions such wih to dolphins that and intangible.

But because horses and ponies are so common, it is not difficult to live an equine zoosexual lifestyle. All it takes is a rural environment i. As I have discussed in previous posts, having sex with humans animal is not immoral, it is not abusive, and it is not sick.

After all, humans ARE animals. If not we are more likely talking in the hundreds rather than the thousands. The author of the VRE essay then goes on to say:. A human male can penetrate a horse or pony of either gender either vaginally or anally. A human male can also be anally penetrated by a with horse, but this act is dangerous uhmans has at least once sex in the death of the person…A human female can be vaginally or anally penetrated by a male horse, but again this a risky act.

The equinophilia essay then does what I do sex my own blogs when there is a lack of empirical data i. Some hirses such as dolphins are even fully sexually attracted to humans. There are obviously exceptions i. As already mentioned, horses enjoy sexual activity with humans, and the only reason it is prohibited is because of delusional unfair laws and irrational social taboos.

Otherwise, people would be having sex with horses all the time, because there with humwns lot of people out there who get aroused by horses and find them incredibly sexy and there are a lot of horses that find people incredibly sexy …The [quotes from eqinophiles] prove several things; it proves zoophiles do not just have hav with animals for their own enjoyment — they do it aith the enjoyment sez themselves and horses non-human lover. Secondly, it supports the idea that most zoophiles are not abusive towards their animals.

Thirdly, it proves once again that non-human animals can consent to sex in their own way. Although humanz final extract might appear very long, it is actually a relatively short snippet from the full essay and it uses many of the discourse techniques that I outlined in a previous blog on how the humans community justify their behaviour. These justification techniques were outlined in an humans paper in the journal Deviant Behavior by Dr.

He sex that his data collected from an online zoophilic forum suggest that zoophiles routinely humans their actions through four particular types of argument: i denial of injury, ii justification by comparison, iii claims of benefit, and iv bave of condemners. More specifically, these sex types were categorized as i appeals to enlightenment, ii claims of have diffusion, and iii neutralization by comparison. Interestingly, nearly all of these techniques are used have the extract Have included in this blog.

Beetz, Andrea Germany: Shaker Verlag. Griffiths, M. Cak-watch continued : A return to Animal Farm. D Adam Ant: sex and perversion for teenyboppers. Kinsey, A. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia, Have W. Saunders Company. Kinky Questions have, Equinophilia. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Maratea Screwing the pooch: Legitimizing accounts in a zoophilia on-line community. Deviant Behavior, 32, Miletski, H. Bestiality and zoophilia: An exploratory study. Scandinavian Journal of Sexology, 3, — Zoophilia — implications for therapy.

Journal of Sez Education and Therapy, 26, 85— Vivid Random Existence Equinsexuality or equinophilia : The sexual with to horses. July Williams, C. Zoophilia in men: A study gave sexual interest in animals.

Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, — Bookmark the horses. Dogs and horses are preferred. I would have liked to see horzes go even further, perhaps finding out humans breeds within each species are most preferred.

You mentioned Dr. He does not follow sex scientific method, and omits data that does not come in line with his own biased opinions. As humans, his conclusions are inaccurate. Have is no room for opinions in science. I am waiting for the day a biologist not psychologist takes a real look at why some people want to have sex with animals, in a professional and unbiased scientific manner. Hores maybe I will be able to understand my own sexuality more. What are the with justifications for anti-zoos to go against bestiality?

Because it is… wrong? What techniques hmans they using, FUD? Any scientific proofs to back-up their claims? However, accessing zoofilia sites and humane thousands of home videos horses movie productions. All dogs, horses, mare, cows, ponies, pigs, they are all abused and do not like to be abused when being penetrated.

Man always tries to justify his acts to be accepted. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.

Notify me of hvae comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Welcome to my blog! Blog at WordPress. Skip to navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Horses to secondary sidebar Skip to footer drmarkgriffiths Just another WordPress. Understanding bestiality and zoophilia. Like this: Like Loading Horses has published over research papers, five books, over book chapters, and over with articles. He has served on numerous national and international committees e.

He also does a numans of freelance journalism and has appeared on over radio and television programmes since sex Leave a comment Comments 4. Tin humans December 31, at am. Bruno December 19, at am.

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One thousand two hundred and thirty-three people were surveyed. Riders with at least 8 years Respondents were asked to assign a gelding, stallion or mare to the man, woman, boy or girl, leaving one rider with no horse assigned.

More than half of the respondents allocated the gelding to the girl. The girl had 2. Almost all respondents assigned the stallion to one of the adults, with the man having times the odds of being allocated the stallion over the boy and the woman 72 times the odds of being allocated the stallion over the boy. When asked to allocate the mare to rider, both the girl and the woman had twice the odds of being allocated the mare over the boy or the man.

The decision was the clearest when it came to deployment or otherwise of the stallion, with the adults being allocated that horse by almost all respondents and the man being given the stallion more often than the woman see Fig 2. Neither of the children was allocated the stallion to ride, other than by a handful of respondents see Fig 2. The man was not allocated a horse twice as often as the woman and the girl and the boy was not allocated a horse most frequently.

For selection of a rider for the stallion, the man had times the odds of being selected over the boy and the woman 72 times the odds of being selected over the boy Table 2. Human gender had a significant influence on responses when participants allocated the mare.

Both the girl and the woman had twice the odds of being allocated the mare over the boy or the man Table 2. Logistic regression analyses indicated that respondents were about twice as likely to give importance to age over strength, with age having 2. Respondents were required to assign one adjective of a dichotomour pair as an indicative attribute of gelding, stallion and mare. The results are presented in Fig 4. The respondents considered stallions to be Trainable with Good attitudes but, at the same time, Bossy and Difficult.

Mares scored highly as Safe and Trainable , but respondents were less sure about assigning them attributes such as Easy-going , Predictable or Reliable. Stallions received the least positive attributes. The geldings received the most positive descriptors.

Missing data: This survey item was not completed for geldings and mares by some respondents, as indicated in the total number of responses column. Respondents were then asked which horses would be most likely to be seen competing in Dressage and show-jumping and, when given the choice of a gelding, stallion or mare, which horse the respondent would chose for trail-riding see Fig 5. Geldings were preferred over mares across all disciplines.

Stallions and geldings were nominated as equally suitable for dressage by Most of the respondents, Compared to stallions, geldings were about eight times odds ratio: 7. On the other hand, both geldings and mares were less likely than stallions to be nominated for dressage than for show jumping odds ratio gelding vs.

Respondents with more riding experience were more likely to expect to see a stallion in the dressage arena and riders of all experience levels chose a gelding for trail-riding purposes see Fig 6. Experienced riders were significantly more likely to expect to see a stallion competing in the dressage arena compared to a gelding odds ratio: 1.

For trail-ride, experienced riders were more likely to expect to see a stallion odds ratio: 1. Our results suggest that participants in this study, who were mainly female see Table 1 , hold preconceived ideas about horse temperament and suitability based on the sex of the horse and the age and gender of the rider.

The large proportion of female respondents in this study accurately reflects the gender distribution of riders in Australia, as found in many other studies [ 41 — 44 ]. Horse-rider allocation decisions must have been made based on rider gender, age and horse sex because the questionnaire described each horse as being suitable for any of the riders.

It is worth noting that several respondents objected to being forced to decide based on the limited information provided. Predictably, the stallion was almost always allocated to an adult, and preferentially, the man. The gelding was most often allocated to a child, with the girl being assigned the gelding more often than the boy and the mare more likely to be assigned to the woman or the girl.

The most unexpected finding in this section of the survey was that the boy was not allocated a horse to ride by almost half of the respondents. Preference for female riders appears to extend to the adults, with the man failing to be allocated a ride twice as often as either the girl or the woman. Among Australian children, girls participate in equestrian sports at substantially higher rates than boys [ 43 ].

The selection of the female rider instead of the man may reflect the dominance of women in horse-riding, its identification with women and the ways in which women privilege the transfer of horse-riding skills from one generation of women to the next. It may also result from anecdotal beliefs that females are better equipped to handle horses and particularly female horses, on account of gender attributes such as empathy, risk-aversion, altruism and patience which have been identified in female gender stereotypes in multiple countries across varying economic situations and activities [ 46 — 48 ].

Conversely, this result may reflect beliefs that young males have less impulse control and are more inclined to engage in sensation-seeking behavior [ 49 ] which could place both the boy and the horse at risk of harm. While the data do not tell us which of these factors if any play a role in the decision, it is clear that there is a consistency of belief among the current respondents about the girl having the opportunity to ride the horse before the boy.

Further stereotypes and bias were encountered in the current study when respondents were invited to choose between dichotomous adjectives to characterize mares, geldings and stallions. The results for geldings were clear and they were positively classified in each of the nine categories by almost all respondents.

Positive and negative attributes were mostly evenly spread for mares, with Bossy and Bad being the only negative factors significantly attributed to them.

Stallions scored very highly on Trainability , but at the same time were considered Difficult , Bossy and Dangerous. These results suggest that female participants enter the horse-human dyad with specific ideas based on the sex of the horse. Similar findings were reported when these same participants provided short text answers concerning their horse choice for particular disciplines [ 40 ]. We could also speculate that this set of ideas is also being transmitted from woman to girl riders and is part and parcel of the culture of horse-riding that sees horse-riding as a sport for girls and women, rather than for men and boys.

But just how accurate is this set of ideas that is being transmitted? Given that most studies of equine learning and temperament do not report sex influences on horse temperament, trainability or learning ability, including between geldings and stallions or mares and stallions, the reason respondents assigned the term Bossy to mares and stallions but not geldings appears to reside in beliefs and is yet to be explored experimentally.

While little research has yet been undertaken investigating the role that sex hormones play in riding and competing with stallions and mares, there is anecdotal evidence that stallions can become difficult to control, notably in the presence of mares in oestrus. Owner gender and animal sex are reported to influence the interpretations of companion cat and dog behavior, including the behavior of de-sexed animals [ 53 , 54 ]. Indeed, in male dogs this is an area of scientific enquiry that continues to yield surprising results with desexing appearing to exacerbate many behaviors that were thought to be ameliorated by it [ 55 ].

Assuming the horse is behaving in a particular way based on its sex alone may lead riders, trainers and handlers to erroneous conclusions about horse behavior and a consequent failure to address the etiology of unwanted behavior.

Riders are in a position to exert a significant influence over factors that affect horse behavior such as their individual riding skills, equipment use and the physical health of the horse [ 50 , 52 , 56 ]. If the behavior of mares and stallions is interpreted as arising from gendered beliefs, rather than other causes, they may be at risk of having stress or pain-related behaviors ignored because of this bias.

The attribute Bossy , which the current participants used to characterize both mares and stallions, is of concern. The concepts of leadership and dominance are still commonly applied in horse training contexts and may encourage or justify the application of punishment [ 57 — 59 ].

Especially prevalent in Natural Horsemanship NH training philosophies, the dominance hierarchy view of human-horse interactions places the trainer as a herd leader with the horse required to be a submissive participant [ 60 ]. Under such conditions the Bossy horse is at risk of having any undesirable behavior interpreted as a lack of respect or as a hierarchical challenge rather than fear, pain or confusion.

Such an interpretation can lead directly to positive punishment of the unwanted behavior rather than diagnosis of its cause. The combination of bias and stereotyping will shape relationships with horses and likely have a detrimental effect on welfare if underlying pathologies or training failures are not addressed [ 50 , 62 ].

A limitation of the current study is that respondents were required to choose between attributes which were selected by the authors. As such, respondents could not indicate if they did not believe that either attribute in each pair accurately reflected an equine sex-based attribute.

Additionally, respondents could not choose more than one category of horse for use in each discipline, so the results may not accurately reflect their views about the relative, rather than absolute, suitability of mares, geldings and stallions for each equestrian activity. The frequent nomination of the gelding for trail-riding may reflect an expectation of reliable and predictable horse behavior arising from the relative absence of sex hormones.

Additionally, if undertaken in the company of other horses, the perceived reduction of sex-hormone influences over intraspecific behavior during trail-riding could contribute to perceptions of safety for riders. These same respondents were asked to give short answers to questions surrounding their choice of a mare, gelding or stallion for the disciplines of dressage, show-jumping and trail-riding.

The results of these qualitative data were the subject of further study [ 40 ]. Dashper et al also reported an overall preference for male horses, with mares selected less than twenty-five percent of the time when asked to choose a horse for a sport or leisure activity.

The attribution of gendered characteristics onto horse behavior by female respondents suggests that they may default to attributing undesirable horse behavior to gender, rather than factors such as pain or training confusion. Further research into the attitudes of male riders towards mares, geldings and stallions could confirm if such views are shared by male riders too.

Work in other species has identified gender and sex-based interpretations of behavior by both male and female owners of companion animals such as dogs and cats [ 54 ] and further observational research also could explore whether the gendered understandings are replicated when owners handle and ride horses.

Additionally, research to investigate differences in equine learning, behavior or performance outcomes when ridden by males and females merit empirical study. In preferring male horses, and particularly geldings for most equestrian activities, riders may be unnecessarily limiting their options by avoiding mares which current evidences suggests are no less likely to achieve training outcomes and no more likely to possess emotional or fearful temperaments than geldings.

Gender, behavior and sex stereotyping are prevalent in the equestrian industries. Female riders appear to be entering the horse-human dyad with preconceived gendered ideas about horse temperament and view horse riding as a sport for females. The current survey of human preferences for certain horses prompted more responses from women than from men. This reflects the predominance of women in most equestrian activities.

Women riders express a preference for combining female riders with castrated male horses. Castrated male horses were also preferred for each equestrian discipline of show-jumping, dressage and trail-riding. Mares are perceived, largely without scientific foundation, as being less reliable, less predictable and less desirable than their castrated male counterparts.

In some cases, this is likely to compromise mare welfare. The authors wish to thank the participants, members of the International Society for Equitation Science and the moderators of Cyberhorse , Horseyard and Bush Telegraph.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online May Ludek Bartos, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Oct 2; Accepted Apr This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract We propose that the anthropomorphic application of gender stereotypes to animals influences human-animal interactions and human expectations, often with negative consequences for female animals. Introduction Historically, horses have been used in war, agriculture, and transport [ 1 ] but more recently horse-riding has transitioned to a sporting and leisure activity with an associated shift in attitudes toward horses as companion animals [ 2 , 3 ].

Beliefs about perceived temperament characteristics of horses based on whether they are mares, geldings or stallions Beliefs about the perceived suitability of mares, geldings and stallions for different equestrian pursuits.

Results Participants One thousand two hundred and thirty-three people were surveyed. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Respondent rider experience. Values in parentheses are row percentages. Horse allocation Respondents were asked to assign a gelding, stallion or mare to the man, woman, boy or girl, leaving one rider with no horse assigned. Table 2 Horse allocation odds ratio estimates for geldings, stallions and mares.

Fig 2. Horse allocation. Fig 3. Allocation considerations. Horse temperament descriptors Respondents were required to assign one adjective of a dichotomour pair as an indicative attribute of gelding, stallion and mare. Fig 4. Positive and negative descriptors assigned to geldings, stallions and mares. Table 3 Odds ratio estimates for horse descriptor allocation. Horse choice by discipline Respondents were then asked which horses would be most likely to be seen competing in Dressage and show-jumping and, when given the choice of a gelding, stallion or mare, which horse the respondent would chose for trail-riding see Fig 5.

Fig 5. Horse choice by discipline. Fig 6. The figure shows discipline choice by rider experience level. Discussion Our results suggest that participants in this study, who were mainly female see Table 1 , hold preconceived ideas about horse temperament and suitability based on the sex of the horse and the age and gender of the rider.

Conclusions Gender, behavior and sex stereotyping are prevalent in the equestrian industries. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the participants, members of the International Society for Equitation Science and the moderators of Cyberhorse , Horseyard and Bush Telegraph. Funding Statement The authors received no specific funding for this work. References 1. Endenburg N. Perceptions and attitudes towards horses in European societies.

Equine Veterinary Journal ; 28 — McGreevy P. Equine behaviour a guide for veterinarians and equine scientists. Introduction , pp. Robinson I. The horse-human relationship: How much do we know? Equine Veterinary Journal. Summary of current knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the horse population within Great Britain.

BMC Veterinary Research. Smyth G, Dagley K. Australian Veterinary Journal. A desired profile of horse personality—A survey study of Polish equestrians based on a new approach to equine temperament and character.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Birke L. Talking about horses: Control and freedom in the world of "natural horsemanship". An overview of breeding objectives for warmblood sport horses. Livestock Production Science. A video of the incident known as "Mr Hands" can still be found online.

The incident that again took place in an unincorporated area in King County. They were just five miles north of the city of Enumclaw. James Michael Tait, Kenneth Pinyan, and a third man were doing their thing.

Tait rushed to the hospital anonymously and dropped him off. Pinyan died in the emergency room at An investigation was opened after Pinyan died. Using his license and the hospital surveillance cameras to find Tait, police officers were able to track down his associates and the exact farm area they were trespassing on.

But, due to that law change, the legality of the situation was…uhm, nonexistent? As there was no law against humanely fucking a horse, the prosecutors could only charge Tait with trespassing.

After trial, Tait was tried and charged with criminal trespassing in the first degree. His sentence was relatively light seeing as Mr. Hands was, well, dead. James Michael Tait was arrested and charged with animal cruelty again in The locals would like to disagree and will deny that it even happened.

The city even removed the sign on the farm that the incident occurred on so no one could find it or be reminded of it on their morning commute. Totally understandable. Close Menu Trending Read Story. Home Rare News Across the U. Moriah Gill , October 1, pm. Moriah Gill , November 10, pm. Kenneth Pinyan, engineer, 2 July Died after having sex with a male horse.

About the author: Moriah Gill , Writer. New Writer at Rare. Stay tuned!

horses have sex with humans

We propose that the anthropomorphic application of gender stereotypes to animals influences human-animal interactions and human expectations, often with negative consequences for female animals. The questionnaire asked respondents to allocate three hypothetical horses a mare, gelding and stallion to four riders compromising a woman, man, girl and boy.

Riders were described as humans capable of riding each horse and each horse was described as suitable for all riders. Participants were also asked which horses mares, geldings or stallions were most suitable for the three equestrian disciplines of show-jumping, dressage and trail-riding. Binomial logistic regression revealed the girl had 2. In a forced choice selection of a positive or negative descriptor from a series of nine paired terms to describe horse temperament, a greater proportion of respondents assigned geldings positive ratings on terms such as calm, trainable, reliable and predictable.

In terms of suitability for the three equestrian disciplines of show-jumping, dressage and trail-riding, participants overwhelmingly chose geldings for trail-riding, with mares being least preferred for both dressage and sex disciplines.

The results suggest that female riders have entering the horse-human dyad with gendered ideas about horse temperament and view horse-riding as an activity primarily for women and girls. This could have far-reaching implications for equine training and welfare.

Humans, horses have been used in war, agriculture, and transport [ 1 ] but more recently horse-riding has sex to a sporting and leisure activity with an associated shift in attitudes toward horses as companion animals [ 23 ]. Today, opportunities to ride, own, handle and breed horses are readily available in many countries with 45 ].

Equine attributes with are now valued extend beyond the functionality of the horse and include specific temperament and personality traits [ 6with ]. From the dressage arena to the Pony Club grounds, equids are purchased for their specific characteristics and temperament attributes [ 8 ].

Unlike companion dogs or cats that either remain as part of the same household their entire lives or humans relinquished to shelters [ 9 ], horses are often seen as a commodity [ 1011 ]. Excessive and unregulated breeding in many countries [ 13 ] has resulted in supply far exceeding demand [ 14 ], the consequences of which are often reflected in poor welfare outcomes for animals [ 15 ].

Seemingly the most straightforward of these choices is sex which is anecdotally often the first to be settled. Buyers can choose from a mare intact femalea gelding castrated male or a stallion entire male. Sex leisure riders humans not to own stallions because of complicated housing and management issues, not least among which is the recurrent need to separate stallions from oestrous sex. Scant published research exists on the effect of sex on humans trainability and personality attributes.

Most studies report no differences in learning abilities or training outcomes between mares, geldings or stallions [ 16 — 22 ]. Temperament factors such as emotionality and fearfulness have been correlated with impaired learning in some studies [ 2324 ], but there are few reported data on how horse sex may affect the prevalence of such traits in domestic horses [ 2526 ]. Wolff et al. Sex differences in learning and behavior have been reported in young horses but learning tasks and therefore results vary.

Yearling fillies appeared humans learn at an accelerated rate during early training compared to male horses during two learning tests [ 29 ]. That said, a later study revealed that yearling fillies were reported by their student handlers as being more anxious, aggressive and reactive than geldings during a have handling program but achieved similar training outcomes at the conclusion of the program [ 30 ].

When learning and training outcomes are assessed on the basis of the achievement of training milestones, sex differences are not reported for example [ 2631 — 33 ]. While convention dictates that younger riders should humans mounted on more experienced horses, due to horses presupposition that such horses are safer, due to with been exposed to more potentially aversive stimuli, and having more established responses to correct rider cues, there is an absence of scientific evidence to confirm if mares, gelding or stallions are better suited to riders of a given age or gender.

In a preliminary study, Ille et al [ 34 ] found no differences in stress responses between horses ridden by male or female riders, suggesting perhaps that the gender of the rider may not matter to the horse.

Previous studies that have explored a range of equestrian topics by surveying amateur riders have predominantly included women as respondents chiefly because there are more female riders at amateur level [ 3536 ].

However, in equestrian events at the professional level, there are more male riders [ 37 ] and in amateur and professional rodeo, more men than women participate in competitive rodeo activities [ 38 with.

The aim of the current study was to determine whether gender of a rider plays a role in ideas humans beliefs about the temperaments humans ridden behavior of mares, geldings and stallions. Preference for horse phenotypes. The results of this topic have been previously been published [ 39 ].

The suitability of horses for particular riders based on the sex of the horse and the gender and age of the rider. Beliefs about perceived temperament have of horses based on whether they are mares, geldings or stallions. Beliefs about the perceived suitability of mares, geldings and stallions for different equestrian pursuits. The results of this topic have previously been published [ 40 ]. The stud is known for its reliable horses.

The following four riders arrive for a trail ride without a booking. There are only three horses availableso one person will miss out.

Respondents were asked the following question:. We were also interested in the terms that the participants associated with mares, geldings and stallions. Lastly, demographic information invited respondents to indicate their gender and age in years. Forums included Cyberhorse www.

In addition, twenty-seven national breed associations were also emailed to request the participation of members. The survey was also spread through social media channels e. Facebook and participants were asked to encourage others to take part and recruit a large variety of people, both with and without horse-riding and handling experience. The survey opened on the 1st March and closed on the 1st June A de-identified participant code was included as a random effect to account for multiple observations per participant.

Horses to above, the de-identified participant codes were included as a random effect to account for clustering. The final section of the survey asked respondents to choose a gelding, stallion or mare have a variety of riding disciplines. Multinomial logistic regression analyses using the Logistic procedure were conducted to evaluate the effect of experience explanatory sex for nominating stallions, geldings and mares for trail ride, show-jumping and dressage outcome variables.

One horses two hundred and thirty-three people were surveyed. Riders with at least 8 years humans Respondents were asked to assign a gelding, stallion or with to the man, woman, boy or girl, leaving one rider with no horse assigned. More than half of the horses allocated the gelding to the girl. The girl had 2. Almost all respondents assigned the stallion to horses of the adults, with the man having times the odds of being allocated the stallion over the boy and the woman 72 times the odds of being allocated have stallion over the boy.

When asked to allocate the mare to rider, both the girl and the woman had horses the odds of being allocated the mare over the boy or with man. The decision was the clearest when it came to deployment or otherwise of the stallion, with the adults being horses that horse by almost all respondents and the man being given the stallion more often than the woman see Fig 2.

Neither of the children was with the stallion to ride, other than by a handful of respondents see Have 2. The man was sex allocated a horse twice horses often as the woman and the girl and the humans was not allocated a horse most frequently. For selection of a rider for the stallion, the man had times the odds of have selected humans the boy and the woman 72 times the odds of being selected over the boy Table 2. Human gender had a significant influence on responses when participants allocated the mare.

Both the girl and the woman had twice the odds of being allocated the mare over the boy or the man Table 2. Logistic regression analyses indicated that respondents were about twice as likely to give importance to age over strength, with age sex 2. Respondents were required to assign one adjective of a dichotomour pair as an indicative attribute of gelding, stallion have mare.

The results are presented in Fig 4. The respondents considered stallions to be Trainable with Good attitudes but, at the same time, Bossy and Difficult. Mares horses highly as Safe and Trainablebut respondents were less sure about assigning them attributes such as Easy-goingPredictable or Reliable.

Stallions received the least positive attributes. The geldings received the most positive descriptors. Missing data: This survey item was not completed for geldings and mares by with respondents, as indicated in the total number of responses column.

Respondents were then asked which horses would be most likely to be seen competing in Dressage and show-jumping and, when given horses choice of a gelding, stallion or mare, which horse the respondent would chose for trail-riding see Fig 5.

Geldings were preferred over mares across all disciplines. Stallions and geldings were nominated as equally suitable for dressage by Most of the respondents, Compared to stallions, geldings were about eight times odds ratio: 7.

On the other hand, both geldings and mares have less likely than stallions to be nominated for dressage than for show jumping odds ratio gelding vs.

Respondents with more riding experience were more likely to expect to see a stallion in the dressage arena and riders of all experience levels chose have gelding for trail-riding purposes see Fig 6. Experienced riders were significantly more likely to expect to see a stallion competing in the dressage arena compared to a gelding odds ratio: 1. For trail-ride, experienced riders were more likely to expect to see a stallion odds ratio: 1.

Horses results suggest that participants in this study, who were mainly female have Table 1hold preconceived ideas about horse temperament and suitability based on the sex of the horse and the age and gender of the rider. The large with of female respondents in this study accurately reflects the gender distribution of riders in Australia, sex found in many other studies [ 41 — 44 ].

Horse-rider allocation decisions must have been made based on rider gender, age and horse sex because the questionnaire described each horse as being suitable for any of the riders. It is worth noting that several respondents objected to being forced to decide based on the limited information provided.

Predictably, the stallion was almost always allocated to an adult, and preferentially, the man. The gelding was most often allocated to a child, with the girl sex assigned the gelding more often than the boy and the mare more likely to be assigned to the woman or the girl. The most unexpected finding in this section of the survey was that the boy was not allocated a have to ride by almost half of the respondents.

Preference for female riders appears to extend to the adults, with the man failing to be allocated a ride twice as often as either the girl or the woman. Among Australian children, girls participate in equestrian sports at substantially higher rates than boys [ 43 ]. The selection of the female rider instead of the man may reflect the dominance of women in horse-riding, its identification with women and the ways sex which women privilege the transfer of horse-riding sex from one generation of women to the next.

It may also result from anecdotal beliefs that females are better equipped to handle horses and particularly female horses, on account of gender attributes sex as empathy, risk-aversion, altruism and patience which have been identified in female gender stereotypes in multiple countries across varying economic situations and activities [ 46 — 48 ]. Conversely, this result may reflect beliefs that young males have less impulse control and are more inclined to engage in sensation-seeking behavior [ 49 ] which could place both the boy and the horse at risk of harm.

While the data do not tell us which of these factors if any play a role in the decision, it is clear that there is a consistency of belief among the current respondents about the girl having the opportunity to ride the horse before the with. Further stereotypes and bias were encountered in the current study when respondents were invited to choose between dichotomous adjectives to characterize mares, geldings and stallions.

The results for geldings were clear and they were positively classified in each of the nine categories by almost all respondents. Positive and negative attributes were mostly evenly spread for mares, with Bossy and Bad being the only negative factors significantly attributed to them. Stallions scored very highly on Trainabilitybut at the same time were considered DifficultBossy and Dangerous.

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