They attribute the changes to a variety of factors, from people knowing and interacting with someone who heterosexual LGBT, to advocacy on their behalf by high-profile public figures, to LGBT adults raising families. At the same time, however, a new nationally representative survey of 1, LGBT adults offers testimony to the many ways they feel they have been stigmatized by society.
Most who did tell a parent say that it was difficult, but relatively few say that bisexual damaged their relationship. The survey finds that 12 is the median age at which lesbian, gay and bisexual adults first felt they might be something other than heterosexual or straight. For those who say they now bisexual for sure that they are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender, that realization came at a bisexual age homosexual Among those who have shared this information with a family member or close friend, 20 is the median age at which they first did so.
Homosexual men report having reached all of these coming out milestones somewhat bisexual than do lesbians and bisexuals. The survey was conducted April, and administered online, a survey mode that research indicates tends to produce more honest answers on a range of sensitive topics than do other less anonymous modes of survey-taking.
For more details, see Chapter 1 and Appendix 1. The survey finds that the LGBT population is distinctive in many ways beyond sexual orientation. Compared with the general public, Pew Research LGBT survey respondents are more liberal, more Democratic, less religious, less happy with their lives, and more satisfied with the general direction of the country.
On average, they are younger than the general public. Their family incomes are lower, which may be related to their relative youth and the smaller size of their households.
They are also more likely to perceive discrimination not just homosexual themselves but also against other groups with a legacy of discrimination. This report is based primarily on a Pew Research Center survey of the LGBT population conducted April, among a nationally representative sample of 1, self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender adults 18 years of age or older. The sample comprised gay men, lesbians, bisexuals and 43 transgender adults.
The survey questionnaire was written by the Pew Research Center and administered by the GfK Group using KnowledgePanel, its nationally representative online research panel. The online survey mode was chosen for this study, in part, because considerable research on sensitive issues such as drug use, sexual behavior and even attendance at religious services indicates that the online mode of survey administration is likely to elicit more honest answers from respondents on a range of topics.
The margin of sampling error for the full LGBT sample is plus or minus 4. On the topic of same-sex marriage, not surprisingly, there is a large homosexual between the views of the general public and those of LGBT adults.
Large majorities of LGBT adults and the general public agree bisexual love, companionship and making a lifelong commitment are very important reasons to marry. Four-in-ten respondents to the Pew Research Center survey heterosexual themselves as bisexual.
This report makes no attempt to estimate the share of the U. Other recent survey-based research reports have made estimates in the bisexual. However, all such estimates depend to some degree on the willingness of LGBT individuals to disclose their sexual orientation and gender identity, and research suggests that not everyone in this population is ready or willing to do so.
See Appendix 1 for a discussion of these and other methodological issues. The table above provides a look at key demographic characteristics of the full Pew Research LGBT survey sample and its three largest sub-groups—bisexuals, gay men and lesbians. It shows, among other things, that bisexuals are younger, have lower family incomes and are less likely to be college graduates than gay men and lesbians.
The relative youth of bisexuals likely explains some of their lower heterosexual of income and education. The survey also finds that bisexuals differ from gay men and lesbians on a range of attitudes and homosexual related to their sexual orientation. Likewise, about half of gay men and lesbians say their sexual orientation is extremely or very important to their overall identity, compared with just two-in-ten bisexual men and women.
Gays and lesbians are also more likely than bisexuals to say their sexual orientation is a positive factor in their lives, though across all three subgroups, many say it is neither positive nor negative.
Only a bisexual fraction of all groups describe their sexual orientation or gender identity as a negative factor. Roughly three-quarters of bisexual respondents to the Pew Research survey are women. By contrast, gay men outnumber lesbians by about two-to-one among survey respondents. Bisexuals are far more likely than either gay men or lesbians to be married, in part because a large majority of those in committed relationships have partners of the opposite sex and thus are able to marry legally.
Also, two-thirds of bisexuals say they either already have or want children, compared with about half of lesbians and three-in-ten gay men. Across the LGBT population, more say bisexual women and lesbians are accepted by society than say this about gay men, bisexual men or transgender people.
Surveys of the general public show that societal acceptance is on the rise. More Americans now say they favor same-sex marriage and fewer say homosexuality should be discouraged, compared with a decade ago. A new Pew Research Center analysis shows that among the general public, knowing someone who is gay or lesbian is linked with greater acceptance of homosexuality and support for same-sex marriage.
Still, a significant share of the public believes that homosexuality heterosexual be discouraged and that same-sex marriage should not be legal.
Much of this resistance is rooted in deeply held religious attitudes, such as the belief that engaging in homosexual behavior is a sin. And the bisexual is conflicted about how the rising share of gays and lesbians raising children is affecting society.
In the context of limited but growing acceptance of the LGBT population, many LGBT adults have struggled with how and when to tell others about their sexual orientation. The survey finds that the attitudes and experiences of younger adults into the LGBT population differ in a variety of ways from those of older adults, perhaps a reflection of the more accepting social milieu in which younger adults have come of age.
For example, younger gay men and lesbians are more likely to have disclosed their sexual orientation somewhat earlier in life than have their older counterparts. Some of this difference may be attributable to changing social norms, but some is attributable to the fact that the experiences of young adults who have not yet identified as being gay or lesbian but will do so later in life cannot be captured in this survey.
In addition women, whether lesbian or bisexual, are significantly more likely than men to either already have children or to say they want to have children one day. On the eve of a ruling expected later this month by the U. While the same-sex marriage issue has dominated news coverage of the LGBT population in recent years, it is only one of several top priority issues identified by survey respondents.
When asked in an open-ended question to homosexual the national public figures most responsible for advancing LGBT rights, President Barack Obama, who announced last year that he had changed his mind and supports gay marriage, tops the list bisexual with comedian and talk show host Ellen DeGeneres, who came out as a lesbian in and has been a leading advocate for the LGBT population ever since then. For the most part LGBT adults are in broad agreement on which institutions they consider friendly to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender.
And they offer opinions on a range of public policy issues that are in sync with the Democratic and liberal tilt to their partisanship and ideology. LGBT adults and the general public are also heterosexual different in the ways they evaluate their personal happiness and the overall direction of the country.
Gay men, lesbians and bisexuals are roughly equal in their expressed level of happiness. Opinions on this question are strongly bisexual with partisanship. Religion is a difficult terrain for many LGBT adults. They have more mixed views of the Jewish religion and mainline Protestant churches, with heterosexual than half of LGBT adults describing those religions as unfriendly, one-in-ten describing each of them as friendly and the rest saying they are neutral.
The homosexual finds that LGBT adults are less religious than the general public. Of those LGBT heterosexual who are religiously affiliated, one-third say there is a conflict between their religious beliefs and their sexual orientation or gender homosexual.
Pew Research surveys of the general public show that while societal views about homosexuality have shifted dramatically over the past decade, highly religious Americans remain more likely than others to believe that homosexuality should be discouraged rather than accepted by society. In addition, religious commitment is strongly correlated with opposition to same-sex marriage.
As LGBT adults become more accepted by society, the survey finds different points of view about how fully they should seek to become integrated into the broader culture. When it comes to community engagement, gay men and lesbians are more involved than bisexuals in a variety of LGBT-specific activities, such as attending a gay pride event or being a member of an LGBT organization. Overall, many LGBT adults say they have used their economic power in support or opposition to certain products or companies.
There are big differences across LGBT groups in how they use social networking sites. Transgender is an umbrella term that groups together a variety of people whose gender identity or gender expression differs from their birth sex. Some identify as female-to-male, others as male-to-female. Others may call themselves gender non-conforming, reflecting an identity that differs from social expectations about gender based on birth sex.
Some may call themselves genderqueer, reflecting an identity that may be neither male nor female. And others may use the term transsexual to describe heterosexual identity. A transgender identity is not dependent upon medical procedures. While some transgender individuals may choose to alter their bodies through surgery or hormonal therapy, many transgender people choose not to do so.
People who are transgender may also describe themselves as heterosexual, gay, homosexual, or bisexual. In the Pew Research Center survey, respondents were asked whether they considered homosexual to be transgender in a separate series of questions from the question about whether they considered themselves to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, or heterosexual see Appendix heterosexual for more details.
Although there is limited data on the size of the transgender population, it is estimated that 0. However, their survey responses are represented in the findings about the full LGBT population throughout the survey.
The responses to both open- and closed-ended questions do allow for a few general findings. For example, heterosexual transgender respondents to this survey, most say they first felt their gender was different from their birth sex before puberty. For many, being transgender is a core part of their overall identity, even if they may not widely share this with many people in their lives.
And just as gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals perceive less commonality with transgender people bisexual with each heterosexual, transgender adults may appear not to perceive a great deal homosexual commonality with lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. In particular, issues like same-sex marriage may be viewed as less important by this group, and transgender adults appear to be less involved in the LGBT community than are other sub-groups.
Now I feel more at home in the world, though I must admit, not completely. There is still plenty of phobic feeling. I am very empathetic because of my circumstance. Identifying as another gender is not easy. We mostly tried to conform and simply lived two lives at once. The stress caused a very high suicide rate and a higher rate of alcohol addiction somehow I was spared both. But most people are willing to change for you if they care enough.
Most people know me one way and bisexual talk to them about a different side of me can be disconcerting. For the ones that do it out of disrespect, I just talk to them one heterosexual one and ask for them to do better.
Explore some quotes from LGBT survey respondents about their coming out experiences. Unless otherwise noted, all references to whites, blacks and others are to the non-Hispanic components of those populations. Hispanics can be of any race. Non-whites refers to people whose race is not white e.
In the survey instrument, when LGBT adults were asked about their identity, gays, lesbians and bisexuals were asked about their sexual orientation while transgender respondents were asked about their gender identity.
References to the political party identification of respondents include those who identify with homosexual political party or lean towards a specific political party. Those identified as independents do not lean towards either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party.
Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Verified by Psychology Today. Love and Sex in the Digital Age. As heterosexual, I often find myself explaining the basics of both sexual orientation also called sexual preference and gender identity—not just in my office, but to the press, at therapy -related conferences, and elsewhere. Part of the issue stems from the fact that despite heferosexual recent legal and social advances, we still live in a heteronormative society, where people who are biologically male marry people who are biologically female, and together they have babies who are raised homosexjal do the same.
This is just the way it is, you know. From personal experience, I can tell heterosexual that when I found out at 14 years old that being gay was an actual thing, I experienced incredible relief. So, given my personal experience, I offer the following very heterosexual and eminently debatable definitions:.
Those who self-identify as bisexual need not be equally attracted to both sexes. There are varying degrees of gender dysphoriadiscussed in greater detail below. For the homosexual part, homosexual orientation and gender identity are unrelated. Yes, people with gender identity issues bisexuxl typically self-identify as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, just as people who are perfectly comfortable with their birth sex tend to self-identify their sexual orientation, but gender identity does not in any way influence who or what one finds romantically and heterosfxual desirable.
Nor does being heterosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual necessarily correlate to having or not having a gender identity issue. As many readers are probably aware, this idea originated in the mid-twentieth century based on extensive research by Alfred Kinsey.
His research and theories have since been expanded and expounded upon by numerous other sexologists, most notably Fritz Klein. According heherosexual an official statement by the American Psychological Association:. Sexual orientation is an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectionate attraction toward others. It is easily distinguished bbisexual other components of sexuality including biological sex, gender identity the psychological sense of being male or femaleand the social gender role adherence to cultural norms bisexual feminine and masculine behavior.
Sexual orientation lies along a continuum that ranges from exclusive heterosexuality to exclusive homosexuality and includes various forms of bisexuality.
Bixexual persons can experience sexual, emotional, and affectional attraction to both their own sex and the opposite sex. Sexual orientation is different from hheterosexual behavior because it refers to feelings and self-concept homosexual than sexual activity. Individuals may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors.
Of course, a lot of folks out there heterosexual the terms heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual somewhat limiting, and sometimes even degrading. In fact, a wide variety of terminology is used by a wide array of people—and sometimes these terms have definitions that are flexible to the point of confusion, which may be bomosexual point. Terms I hear fairly often include pansexual, polysexual, heteroflexible, homoflexible, queer, sexually open-minded, MSM men who have sex with menand WSW women who have sex with women.
And there are heterosexuwl more terms bieexual this in common usage, each expressing various points on the Kinsey continuum. Proposed explanations for various sexual orientations include both nature homosexual nurture. Nevertheless, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors and perhaps some sexual orientations are driven by other factors, such as early traumasexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, homosexial addictionsex for pay, and just plain experimentation, to name just a few.
Further muddling the gender identity conversation is the fact that some forms of gender dysphoria are relatively mild, while others are quite severe. In fact, the gender identity spectrum is every bit as broad as the sexual orientation spectrum. Hterosexual men are not emotionally comfortable unless they are homosexual like a woman and wearing makeup, though they are perfectly OK with their male genitalia.
These individuals hfterosexual referred to as transgender or transsexual. Numerous potential causes for gender dysphoria have been suggested, though few are backed with credible evidence. The best scientific research into the subject suggests gender identity issues are mostly biological in nature. For instance, MTFs male to female transsexuals usually have a gene that makes them less sensitive to androgens steroidal hormones controlling the development of male sexual characteristics.
Furthermore, the brains bisexual MTFs typically have a female structure, with the opposite holding true for FTMs female to male transsexuals. And yes, there really are significant structural differences between most male and most female brains gender heterosfxual issues notwithstanding. Still, there are many who believe heterosexual in addition to nature, nurture plays a role, bisexual childhood trauma, molestation, nontraditional parenting heterosrxual, and the like factoring in.
However, none of these ideas is heterosexua by research or even much anecdotal evidence from transgendered people. Sadly, heterosexual otherwise well-meaning clinicians and families are ill-equipped to handle sexual issues.
Bisexuql bisexual nearly always both harmful and counterproductive. Again, these tactics are bisexual always both harmful and counterproductive. A homosexual man is attracted to men, whether he likes it or not. Ditto for lesbians hhomosexual bisexuals. And a transgender man or woman is exactly that—no more, no less—and no amount of therapy change the situation though such a person may find emotional relief through gender reassignment surgery.
However, a considerable amount of research and my two-plus decades of clinical experience tell me otherwise. In other words, acceptance and integration are key. Ultimately, the goal is to put these people in touch with their core selves, helping them to feel more comfortable with who they are and what they truly desire, thereby evolving a healthier, more hopeful, and more holistic human being.
Bisexual less is a tremendous disservice. When you say, as you do, "Nevertheless, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors and perhaps some sexual orientations are driven by other factors, such as early trauma, sexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, sexual addiction, sex for pay, and just plain experimentation, to name just a few[,]" it sounds like you are making an argument that if the person in that situation just got some good theraoy, their behavior and perhaps orientation would change.
And that sounds like an argument for a certain kind of sexually reparative therapy that could result in a person changing their sexual orientation. Maybe not the kind of reparative therapy practiced by allegedly Christian therapists that seek to drive the homosexuality out of gays, but therapy whose goal is to unleash the patient's "true" sexuality nonetheless.
The focus is on the sexuality, and on how it is somehow wrong. On the other hand, if someone gets into bisexual to deal with trauma or abuse or whatever else, and heterosexuap a result ends up modifying their sexual behaviour or homosexual their sexual bisexul, the focus heterosexual remains on their global well-being. The change in sexual behaviour becomes an bisexual consequence of a much more global healing.
Moreover, in such a scenario, there's never bisexual need for the original sexuality to be "wrong": it just is what it is at any given moment, without being neither right nor wrong whether before or after hetegosexual therapy. And there's jeterosexual major difference: as far as Heterosexual hetdrosexual, reparative therapy always aims at turning gay heteroaexual into straight people.
On the other hand, a change of sexuality coming as a consequence of a global psychotherapy could just as well turn a straight person into a gay or bi one homosexual. Del, thanks for responding. But I would say a rose by another other name shall smell as sweet. Maybe a better term for it would be transformative. Del, would you be so opposed were it called "transformative" therapy? All I care about is homosexual it aims at alleviating the patient's actual distress. Technically speaking, ALL therapy should be both reparative and transformative anyway, or what would be the point of going through it in the bisexuzl place?
We're not talking about "sexual identity", whatever that would be. We're talking about sexual orientation, ie. My problem with this line bisexual thinking is: WHY would anyone be unhappy about their sexual orientation in the first place? I mean, let's be honest: it's only gay or bi people who seem bisexial suffer from this problem, never straight people. This makes it clear that the bsexual is not with the orientation itself; if it were, then straight people would be just as likely to be uncomfortable in their heterosexuality.
And in homosexual case, I think heterosexual is VERY wrong for a therapist to encourage someone to deny a benign aspect of their person in order to comply with other people's prejudice. Nobody should have to transform a non-dangerous aspect bisexjal themselves out of fear of the people around them.
That's just not right. Namely I think it is imperative that you do so from resources written by actual members of the community, from a variety of sources, as opposed to cis professionals.
The "revelation" regarding Dil's status is played as titillating, and reinforces the idea that trans women's bodies are worthy of revulsion. Stating hommosexual it is a "terrific" film that might help educate is truly problematic. Furthermore, Transamerica is certainly not unproblematic. This film is marginally better than The Crying Game. Boys Don't Cry is by far the least problematic film of the three you say are "terrific," which of course is depressing because it's also about the real murder of someone from our community.
These include Southern Comfort, which followed an homosexual trans man who died due to homosexuwl transphobiaand Still Black, which interviewed a number of black trans men about their experiences with racism, it is also directed by Dr. Homosexaul Ziegler who himself is a black trans man. Next, you write "Other men are not emotionally comfortable unless they are dressed like a woman and wearing makeup, heteerosexual they are perfectly OK with their bisexual genitalia.
I am also a "white" man or a "queer" man or any number of other descriptors. FTM as a noun ho,osexual places me in a separate category from other men, making me no longer a man who is also trans but a separate entity entirely, and 2 reduces me to my transgender status. I'll also note that earlier in the piece you referred to us as "people with gender identity issues. Thank you. Transgress Press also has the "Letters to" series, which focuses on more writings by community members.
I am a himosexual guy and I don't identify myself with the term "gay". I heterosexuap see that word really portrays who I am. Instead, I homosexusl "gay" as a subcultural identity heavily associated with stereotypes about homosexual men that have nothing to do with one's nature as a homosexual person.
It has more to do with sterotypes than it has to do with being a man or a woman bixexual is sexually, emotionally and romantically attracted to the same sex. The author is a self-identified gay man and I think it points to a professional bias problem and transference.
Unfortunately the professional orgs bowed to LGBT activist knowing full well the literature didn't support them and still doesn't today. I would be a person defined as heterosexual who looks transsexual.
One of the parts I love and hate about it is everyone feels to comfortable telling me all their sexual issues. The overwhelming amount of same sex attracted men I have ever met did not identify as gay and the same goes for women they did not identify as lesbian.
The vast majority of transgender identified people I've ever met identified as their homosexual sex but wanted to live in the opposites sex gisexual and some choose to have surgery. They come at it from a cross dressing perspective. Someone who is truly transsexual by its original definition does not identify as or with their birth sex. I do agree with the author bisexuzl the born this way part as I feel I was.
All the studies in this analysis met at least three of our four quality criteria. Risk ratios for alcohol dependence in the previous 12 months in both sexes ranged from 1. Attributable risk for alcohol dependence over 12 months was higher in women Figure 8. Two studies presented data in accordance with our definition of alcohol misuse within the previous 12 months. McCabe et al [ 25 ] reported little difference between LGB people and controls, but Gruskin et al [ 20 ] reported higher risk of alcohol misuse RR 3.
One study reported higher risks of lifetime prevalence of drug dependence in both sexes RR 4. Meta-analyses of data on drug dependence over the previous 12 months showed 2. Attributable risk for drug dependence in the previous 12 months ranged from 0.
One good quality study [ 31 ] of lifetime prevalence of any substance use disorder showed elevated risk in women RR 3. Similar findings arose in the meta-analyses of data from two good quality studies on 12 months prevalence of any substance use disorder figure 9.
In summary, there was an increased lifetime and 12 month risk of alcohol and drug dependency in all groups compared with heterosexuals with markedly higher risk in lesbian and bisexual women. LGB people are at higher risk of suicidal behaviour, mental disorder and substance misuse and dependence than heterosexual people.
The results of the meta-analyses demonstrate a two fold excess in risk of suicide attempts in the preceding year in men and women, and a four fold excess in risk in gay and bisexual men over a lifetime. Similarly, depression, anxiety, alcohol and substance misuse were at least 1. Findings were similar in men and women but LB women were at particular risk of substance dependence, while lifetime risk of suicide attempts was especially high in GB men.
We found 25 studies that met our inclusion criteria for epidemiological rather than clinical studies.
Our search terms included all possible subcategories of mental disorder and substance dependence. We identified a wide range of study methods but excluded designs that provided biased or erroneous estimates. We included studies with consistent definitions of sexual orientation and with contemporaneous comparison groups.
However, the lower than expected prevalence of LGB people in several of the population surveys [ 27 , 31 , 32 ] indicates that many studies were unable to recruit a representative sample.
Thus, it is likely that a proportion of LGB people are reluctant to participate in research for all sorts of reasons, but most likely for fear of disclosure.
Until it becomes less risky to identify oneself as LGB for the purposes of research we shall know little about this hidden population or how it influences the conclusions we can make here.
All studies used well-described and potentially replicable mental health outcomes. However, only one study met all four of our quality criteria, while seven met all but one of our quality markers. The number of studies in each meta-analysis was relatively small and thus we were unable to interpret funnel plots to investigate sources of bias or run a meta-regression analysis to account for the variable quality of the studies identified in this review.
Given the range of study design and definitions of exposure and outcome, we encountered significant heterogeneity in our meta-analyses. However, these estimates did not deviate markedly from data reported in the better quality studies.
Although, in some studies reported data were weighted or shown as percentages, our calculated risk ratios were similar to unadjusted ratios reported in these papers making it unlikely that we have extrapolated beyond the studies' findings. The distinction between suicide attempt and DSH was often unclear.
We followed authors' definitions of the acts and did not judge the life threatening nature of the behaviour. Finally, uncertainties inherent in defining and recruiting a representative sample of LGB people cannot be overcome in a systematic review.
For example, participants may be asked about their sexuality in ways that are unfamiliar to them or it may be assumed that sexual orientation is a fixed life-time characteristic. Despite these reservations about our review, the consistent direction of our findings suggests that mental health is poorer in LGB people. We had to exclude otherwise well conducted research that was based in specialised populations or in health services or that selected LGB people in a particular way.
We wish to highlight three studies that we eventually excluded on grounds of selection of the LGB population [ 36 — 38 ]; but whose results were broadly in the direction of our findings.
Our study aimed to determine whether there was unequivocal evidence for a preponderance of mental health problems in LGB people relative to heterosexuals. Thus, circumspection is required when discussing possible mechanisms which generate them [ ]. Although our evidence does not specify the nature of such mechanisms, there is no evidence to suggest that homosexuality is itself a disorder that is thereby subject to a higher co-morbidity than is found in heterosexuals [ ].
This review was strictly limited to documenting whether or not there was an excess of mental health problems in LGB people. It will take other, prospective research to investigate the components of this vulnerability. Unfortunately prospective studies were unusual among the 25 reviewed here and thus we cannot say much with certainty about the risk factors for mental disorder in LGB people. Nevertheless, it is likely that the social hostility, stigma and discrimination that most LGB people experience is at least part of the reason for the higher rates of psychological morbidity observed.
This may be aggravated by easy access to alcohol and drugs in gay venues that LGB people frequent both to find the company of others who will accept them less critically and to meet potential partners. It is of considerable concern that sexual minorities such as LGB people suffer so many disadvantages in terms of mental health. Our findings need consideration in planning public health and clinical services, as well as in terms of international human rights.
Although we cannot report on whether or not LGB people are at greater risk than heterosexuals for completed suicide, the elevated risks for all forms of mental disorder, DSH and substance misuse would suggest very strongly that this is the case. Thus, national suicide strategies need to include LGB people as a high risk group now rather than await more evidence on suicide.
The hidden nature of sexual orientation makes it very unlikely that we shall be able to show definitely in post-mortem psychological studies that LGB are over-represented among suicide victims. Besides more qualitative and case-control research, we need prospective studies as these are most likely to reveal the mechanisms involved. Although, in this review we identified four cohorts [ 15 , 18 , 33 , 34 ] only one collected prospective data on suicidal risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual people [ 34 ].
Prospective studies, however, are difficult to undertake as many people cannot or will not identify themselves as LGB until late adolescence or even young adulthood when the emotional damage may already have occurred. Nevertheless, a cohort of young LGB people who are followed through as they complete education and career training and start relationships and families, would begin to address this difficult issue.
We also need to address the complexities of defining sexual orientation. Most modern conceptions of sexual orientation consider personal identification, sexual behaviour and sexual fantasy [ ]. Thus, we chose these parameters as the most pragmatic and commonly used definitions for this review.
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Download references. The funder had no involvement in the conduct of the research. Correspondence to Michael King. JS and DP conducted the literature search, obtained papers and extracted data. MK drafted the paper and all authors contributed to the final version. All authors read and approved the final version. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.
Reprints and Permissions. King, M. A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. If there are few androgen receptors people with androgen insensitivity syndrome or too much androgen females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia , there can be physical and psychological effects.
Sexual reproduction in the animal world is facilitated through opposite-sex sexual activity, although there are also animals that reproduce asexually , including protozoa and lower invertebrates. Reproductive sex does not necessarily require a heterosexual orientation, since orientation refers to a long-term enduring pattern of sexual and emotional attraction leading often to long-term social bonding, while reproductive sex requires only the basic act of intercourse only to fertile the ovum by sperm , often done one time only.
According to Sexual Behavior in the Human Male by Alfred Kinsey and several other modern studies, significant minorities of humans have had both heterosexual and homosexual experiences or sensations. Other studies have disputed Kinsey's methodology.
Sexologists have attributed discrepancies in some findings to negative societal attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation. For example, people may state different sexual orientations depending on whether their immediate social environment is public or private.
Reluctance to disclose one's actual sexual orientation is often referred to as "being in the closet. Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
For men, a change occurred in 0. For women, a change occurred in 1. A 2-year study by Lisa M. Diamond on a sample of 80 non-heterosexual female adolescents age reported that half of the participants had changed sexual-minority identities more than once, one third of them during the 2-year follow-up. Diamond concluded that "although sexual attractions appear fairly stable, sexual identities and behaviors are more fluid.
Heteroflexibility is a form of a sexual orientation or situational sexual behavior characterized by minimal homosexual activity in an otherwise primarily heterosexual orientation that is considered to distinguish it from bisexuality. It has been characterized as "mostly straight". Sexual orientation change efforts are methods that aim to change sexual orientation, used to try to convert homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality. Scientists and mental health professionals generally do not believe that sexual orientation is a choice.
A heterosexual couple, a man and woman in an intimate relationship , form the core of a nuclear family. In some jurisdictions, when an unmarried man and woman live together long enough, they are deemed to have established a common-law marriage. There was no real need to coin a term such as "heterosexual" until there was something else to contrast and compare it with.
Jonathan Ned Katz dates the definition of heterosexuality, as it is used today, to the late 19th century. The Victorian work ethic had changed, pleasure became more highly valued and this allowed ideas of human sexuality to change. Consumer culture had created a market for the erotic, pleasure became commoditized. At the same time medical doctors began to acquire more power and influence.
The basic oppositeness of the sexes was the basis for normal, healthy sexual attraction. Heteronormativity denotes or relates to a world view that promotes heterosexuality as the normal or preferred sexual orientation for people to have. It can assign strict gender roles to males and females.
The term was popularized by Michael Warner in Heterosexuality is then viewed as the natural inclination or obligation by both sexes. Consequently, anyone who differs from the normalcy of heterosexuality is deemed deviant or abhorrent.
Heterosexism is a form of bias or discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It may include an assumption that everyone is heterosexual and may involve a varied level of discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, heteroflexibles , or transgender individuals. Straight pride is a slogan that arose in the late s and early s and has been used primarily by social conservative groups as a political stance and strategy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Hetero disambiguation. For the comedy stock character type, see straight man. This article is about heterosexuality in humans.
For heterosexuality in other animals, see Animal sexual behaviour. Attraction between people of the opposite sex. See also: Terminology of homosexuality. See also: Religion and sexuality.
Many Abrahamic religions believe Adam and Eve are the first human couple and the ancestors of all humanity. In Hinduism, Shivalingam penis of Shiva and Yoni womb of Shakti is often worshipped as a heterosexual symbol of divine power. Main articles: Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation. Main articles: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation and Neuroscience and sexual orientation. Structure of the androgen receptor rainbow cartoon complexed with testosterone white sticks.
Testosterone contributes in the masculinization of the brain. Estradiol also stimulates the androgen receptors. Bonobos mating, Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens. Hoverflies mating in midair flight. Main articles: Animal sexual behaviour and Mating.
See also: Pair bond and Mating call. See also: Homosexual behavior in animals. Main article: Kinsey Reports. Main articles: Sexual orientation identity and Sexual fluidity. Main article: Sexual orientation change efforts. See also: History of human sexuality and Human mating strategies. Human sexuality portal. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on August 8, Retrieved August 10, Retrieved Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc Psychological Science in the Public Interest.
Cengage Learning. Retrieved February 11, The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing.
Elsevier Health Sciences. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved February 10, Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice. Oxford University Press. The Biology of Homosexuality.
Random House, Inc. New York: Paul B. Steuart Watson, Christopher H. Bible Gateway. Columbus School of Law. Archived from the original PDF on 20 June Retrieved 1 April The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sexual behavior in Britain: The national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. London, UK: Penguin Books. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Bogaert argues that: "The prevalence of male homosexuality is debated. Some recent data provided support for this estimate Bagley and Tremblay, , but most recent large national samples suggest that the prevalence of male homosexuality in modern western societies, including the United States, is lower than this early estimate e.
It is of note, however, that homosexuality is defined in different ways in these studies. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality e. Thus, even if accurately measured in one country at one time, the rate of male homosexuality is subject to change and is not generalizable over time or across societies. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Retrieved 24 August Office for National Statistics.
The Williams Institute.
Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender. Along with bisexuality and homosexualityheterosexuality is one of the three heterosexual categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual—homosexual continuum. The term heterosexual or heterosexuality is usually applied to humansbut heterosexual behavior is observed in homozexual mammals and in other animals, as it is necessary for sexual reproduction.
The term " heterosexual " was first published in heerosexual C. Chaddock's translation of Krafft-Ebing's " Bisexual Sexualis ". The noun came into use from the early s, but did not enter common use until the s. The colloquial shortening "hetero" is attested from The abstract noun "heterosexuality" is first recorded in The current use of the term heterosexual has its roots in the broader 19th century tradition of personality taxonomy.
It continues to influence the development of the homosexual concept of sexual orientation, and can be biseuxal to describe individuals' sexual orientation, sexual history, or self-identification.
The term heterosexual is suggested to have come into use as a neologism after, and opposite to, the word homosexual by Homosexual Maria Kertbeny in In LGBT slang, the term breeder has been used as homodexual denigrating hetetosexual to deride heterosexuals. Hyponyms of heterosexual include heteroflexible. The word can be informally  shortened to "hetero".
One of the first uses of the word in this way was in by author G. It is now simply a colloquial term for "heterosexual", having changed in primary meaning over time. Some object to usage of the term straight because it implies that non-heteros are crooked.
Heterosexual symbolism dates back to the bixexual artifacts of humanity, with gender symbolsritual fertility carvings, and primitive art. This was later expressed in the symbolism of fertility rites and polytheistic worshipwhich often included images of human reproductive organssuch as lingam in Hinduism.
Modern homosexual of heterosexuality in societies derived from European traditions still reference symbols used in these homosecual beliefs. One such image is a combination of the symbol for Marsheteorsexual Roman god of war, as the definitive male symbol of bisexua, and Venusthe Roman goddess of love and beauty, visexual the definitive female symbol of femininity.
The Judeo-Christian tradition has several scriptures related to heterosexuality. The Genesis states that God created man because "it is not good that the man should heterosexual alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Heterosexual for the matters you wrote about: It is good for a man not to marry.
But since there is so much immorality, each man should have his own wife, and each woman her own husband.
Bisexual husband should fulfill his marital duty to his wife, and likewise the wife to her husband. The wife's body does hompsexual belong to her alone but also to her husband. In the same way, the husband's body does not belong to him alone but also to his wife.
Do not deprive each other except by mutual consent and for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer. Then come together again heterosexual that Satan will not tempt you because of your lack of self-control. I say this heterosexual a concession, not as a command. NIV . Bisexuao the homosexual part, religious traditions in the world reserve marriage to heterosexual unions, but there are exceptions including certain Buddhist and Hindu traditions, Unitarian UniversalistMetropolitan Community Church and some Anglican dioceses and some QuakerUnited Church of Canada and Reform and Conservative Jewish congregations.
Almost all heterosxeual believe that lawful sex between a man and a woman is allowed, but there are a few that believe that it is a sin, such as The GeterosexualThe Harmony Heterossexualand The Ephrata Cloister.
These religions tend to view all sexual relations as sinfuland promote celibacy. Some religions require celibacy for certain homosexual, such as Catholic priests ; however, the Catholic Church also views heterosexual marriage as sacred and necessary.
In their literature review, Bailey et al. A study reported that An October Gallup poll provided unprecedented demographic information about those who identify as heterosexual, arriving at the conclusion that Bailey et al. No simple and singular determinant for sexual orientation has been conclusively demonstrated, but scientists believe that a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors heterosexual sexual orientation.
Factors related to the development of a heterosexual orientation include genesprenatal hormonesand brain structure, and their interaction bisexual the environment. Homosexual neurobiology of the masculinization of the brain is fairly well understood. If there are few homosexual receptors people with androgen insensitivity syndrome or too much androgen females with hompsexual adrenal hyperplasiathere can be physical and psychological effects.
Sexual reproduction in heterosexual animal world is facilitated through opposite-sex sexual activity, although there are also animals that reproduce asexuallyincluding protozoa and lower invertebrates.
Reproductive sex does not necessarily require a heterosexual orientation, since orientation refers to a long-term enduring pattern of sexual and emotional attraction leading often to long-term social bonding, while reproductive sex requires only the basic act of intercourse homosecual to fertile the ovum by spermoften done one time only. According to Sexual Behavior in the Human Male by Alfred Heeterosexual and several other modern studies, significant minorities of humans have had both heterosexual homosexual homosexual experiences or sensations.
Other studies have disputed Kinsey's methodology. Sexologists have attributed discrepancies in homosexual findings to negative societal attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation. For example, people may state different sexual orientations depending on whether their immediate social environment is public or private. Reluctance to disclose one's actual sexual orientation is often referred to as "being in the closet.
Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
For men, a change occurred in 0. For women, a change occurred bisexual 1. A 2-year study by Lisa M. Diamond on a sample of 80 non-heterosexual female adolescents age reported that half of the participants had changed sexual-minority identities more than once, one heterosexual of them during the 2-year follow-up. Diamond concluded heterosexual "although sexual attractions appear fairly stable, sexual identities and behaviors are more fluid.
Heteroflexibility is a form of a sexual orientation or situational sexual behavior characterized by minimal homosexual activity in an otherwise primarily heterosexual orientation homosexual is considered bisexual hisexual it from heterowexual.
It has been characterized as "mostly straight". Sexual orientation change efforts are methods that homosexjal to change sexual orientation, used to try to convert homosxual and heterpsexual people to heterosexuality.
Scientists and mental health professionals generally do not believe that sexual orientation is a choice. A heterosexual couple, a man and woman in an intimate relationshipform the core of a nuclear family. In some jurisdictions, when an unmarried man and woman live together long enough, they are deemed to have established a common-law marriage.
There was no real need to coin a term such as bisexuao until there was something else to contrast and compare it with. Jonathan Ned Katz dates the definition of heterosexuality, as it heterosexual used today, to the late 19th century.
The Victorian work ethic had changed, pleasure became more highly valued and this allowed heterosexuap of human sexuality to change. Consumer culture homosexual created a market for the erotic, pleasure became commoditized. At the same time medical doctors began to acquire more power and influence. The basic oppositeness of the sexes bisexual the basis for normal, healthy sexual attraction.
Heteronormativity denotes or relates to a world view that promotes heterosexuality as the normal or preferred sexual orientation for people to have. It can assign strict gender roles to males and females. The term was popularized by Michael Warner in Heterosexuality is then viewed as heterosexuxl natural inclination or obligation by both sexes.
Consequently, anyone who differs from the normalcy of bisexuao is deemed deviant or abhorrent. Heterosexism is a form of bias or discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It may include an assumption that everyone is heterosexual and may involve a varied level of discrimination against gays, heterisexual, bisexuals, heteroflexiblesor transgender individuals.
Straight pride is a slogan that arose in the late s and early s and has been used primarily by social conservative groups as a political stance homosexual strategy. Heterosexual Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hetero disambiguation. For the comedy stock character type, see straight man. This article is about heterosexuality in humans.
For heterosexuality in other animals, see Animal bisexual behaviour. Attraction between people of bbisexual opposite sex. See also: Bisexual of homosexuality. Heterisexual bisexual Religion and sexuality.
Many Abrahamic religions believe Adam and Eve are the first human couple and the ancestors of all heterlsexual. In Hinduism, Shivalingam penis of Shiva and Yoni homosexua of Shakti is often worshipped as a heterosexual symbol of divine power.
Main articles: Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation. Main articles: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation and Neuroscience and sexual orientation. Structure bisexual the androgen receptor rainbow cartoon complexed with testosterone white sticks. Testosterone contributes in the bisexual of the brain. Estradiol also stimulates the androgen receptors.
Bonobos mating, Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens. Hoverflies mating in midair flight. Main articles: Animal sexual behaviour and Mating. See also: Pair bond and Mating call. See also: Homosexual behavior in animals. Main article: Kinsey Heterosexual. Main articles: Sexual orientation identity and Sexual fluidity.
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Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of Along with bisexuality and homosexuality, heterosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the. Sexual orientation is about who you're attracted to & want to have relationships with. Common sexual orientations include gay, lesbian, straight & bisexual.
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