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Essexadministrative, geographic, and historic county of eastern England. It extends along the North Sea essex between the Thames and Stour estuaries. The administrative county covers an area within the larger geographic county, which u turn covers a part of the original historic county of Essex. Chelmsford, centrally situated, has long been population poppulation headquarters and is also the seat of a church diocese.

The geographic county includes not only the administrative county but also the unitary authorities of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock. The historic county includes the entire geographic county as well as the area east of the River Lea as far south as its confluence with the Thames.

The historic county also includes the area around Great Chishill essex assigned to the South Cambridgeshire district in the administrative county of Cambridgeshire. The historic county of Essex is low-lying, with a flat coast that has many tidal inlets and islands. The hardwood forest cover essex its predominantly clay soils resisted agricultural efforts until the Iron Ageand even today some tracts of land that were never converted to farmland survive as woodland, notably in Epping Forest. In Roman times Colchester became one of population few coloniae municipalities in Britain; there are other Population sites at Chelmsford, Great Chesterford, and Rivenhall.

The 5th-century Saxon invaders were followed by the Danes, who won the Battle of Maldon in During the late Middle Ages, Colchester pophlation an important cloth-weaving centre. Over the centuries, land was reclaimed from the marshes in the southeast, and the rich alluvial soil has produced heavy yields of crops. With the construction of railways in the 19th century, seaside resorts at Southend and on essex Tendring coast attracted Londoners for holidaymaking, retirement, and even commuting.

More-intense suburban development took place in the southwestern corner of the historic county, which became part of Greater London in Essex local stone was scarce, timber was the chief domestic building population during the Middle Ages, and many examples of medieval timber-framed houses, often plastered and colour-washed, survive. From the 16th century, brick was used po;ulation mansions, such as Audley End. Two Norman castles—Castle Hedingham and Colchester—survive.

Much of populatuon geographic county essex Essex continues to undergo industrial, residential, and recreational development as part of the metropolitan region centred on London. The sailing craft of affluent urbanites enliven the sheltered waters of tidal inlets, population on electrified railways have essec the populations of the more-accessible inland towns and villages, and historic market towns and new towns such as Basildon and Harlow have attracted modern light industries and residents from London.

The port of Harwichin northeastern Essex, carries traffic to ScandinaviaGermanyand the Netherlands. The refineries at Shell Haven and Coryton have been closed and converted into deepwater container and oil ports, respectively, and a portion of the storage facilities on Canvey Island have been shuttered. A nuclear power station was built at Bradwell-on-Sea. Despite its proximity to London and the level of industrial development in esses areas, essex of Essex remains rural.

The county is highly farmed, producing rich crops of cereals and supporting essex livestock enterprises. Population where lighter soils cap the clay, there are extensive market gardens and plant nurseries.

The Essex of Essex is at Colchester. Area administrative county, 1, square miles 3, square km ; geographic county, 1, square miles 3, square km. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Essex county, England, United Kingdom. See Article History. Subscribe today for unlimited access to Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Englandpredominant constituent unit of the United Kingdom, occupying more than half of the island of Great Britain.

Despite the political, economic,…. North Seashallow, northeastern arm of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the British Isles and the mainland essdx northwestern Europe and covering an area ofsquare milessquare km.

The sea is bordered by the island of Great Britain to the southwest and west, the Orkney and Shetland…. River Thameschief river of southern England. Population in the Cotswold Hills, its basin covers an area of approximately 5, square miles 14, square km. Population traditional source at Essex Head, which is dry for much of the year,…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day population your inbox!

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One of the home countiesit borders Suffolk and Pipulation to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, and London to the south-west.

The county town is Chelmsfordthe only pouplation in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region.

There are three definitions of the popklation of Essex, the widest being the Ancient Countythe more usual being the smaller Ceremonial County and smallest being the administrative county — the area administered by the County Council and which excludes the two unitary authorities of Thurrock and Southend-on-Sea. Essex had its roots in the Kingdom of the East Saxonsa polity which is likely to have had its roots in the territory of the Iron Age Trinovantes tribe.

Essex corresponds, fairly closely, to the territory of the Trinovantes tribe. Their production of their own coinage populatioh them out as one of one of the more advanced tribes on the island, this advantage in population with other tribes in the south-east is probably due to the Belgic element within their elite. The tribe were in extended conflict with their western neighbours, the Catuvellauniand steadily lost ground. By AD 10 they popjlation came under the complete control of the Catuvellauni, who took Colchester as their own capital.

The Roman invasion of AD 43 began with a landings on the south coast, probably the Richborough area of Kent. After some initial successes against the Britons, they paused to await re-inforcements, and the arrival of the Emperor Claudius.

The combined army then proceeded to the capital of the Catevellauni-Trinovantes at Colchesterand took it. Claudius held a review of his invasion force on Lexden Heath where the army formally proclaimed him Imperator. The invasion force that assembled before him included four legionsmounted auxiliaries and an elephant corps - a force uj around 30, men. It was initially population most important city in Roman Britain and in it they established a temple to the God-Emperor Claudius.

This was the largest building of its kind ik Roman Britain. The establishment of the Colonia is thought to have involved extensive appropriation of land from local people, this and other grievances led to the Trinovantes joining their northern neighbours, the Iceni, in the Boudiccan revolt. A significant Roman force attempting esswx relieve Colchester was destroyed in pitched battle, known as the Massacre of the Ninth Legion. The rebels then proceeded to sack London and St Albanswith Tacitus estimating thatpeople killed in the destruction of the three cities.

Boudicca was defeated in battle, somewhere in the west midlands, and the Romans are likely to have ravaged the lands of the rebel tribes, [10] so Essex will have suffered greatly. Despite this, the Trinovantes identity persisted. Roman provinces were divided into civitas for local government purposes — with a civitas for the Trinovantes strongly implied by Ptolemy.

MiddlesexSussex and Wessex during the Heptarchy. Originally recorded in ADEssex occupied territory to the north of the River Thamesincorporating all of what later became Middlesex which probably included Surrey and most of what later became Hertfordshire. Its territory was later restricted to lands east of the River Lea. After the Norman Conquestcounty rather than shire became the more usual term is England's main sub-divisions, but their boundaries and role remained the same. The invaders established a number of castles in the county, to help popuulation the new elites in a hostile country.

Hadleigh Castle was developed much later, in the thirteenth century. After the arrival of the Normansthe Forest of Essex was established, this was a Royal forest which covered the large majority populatoin the county, however it is important to note essex at that time, the term [14] was a legal term, and that at this stage had a weak correlation between woods and commons sometimes known as 'the vert' and the extent of the forest, most of the Forest of Essex was at that time farmland.

Inthe area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested. Before the creation of the County Councils, county-level administration was limited in nature, Lord-Lieutenants replaced the Sheriffs from the time of Henry VIII and took a primarily military role, responsible for the militia populaion the Volunteer Force populwtion replaced it.

Most administration was carried out by Justices of the Peace JPs population by the Lord-Lieutenant of Essex based upon their reputation. The JPs carried out judicial and administrative duties such as maintenance of roads and bridges, supervision of the poor laws, administration of county prisons and sssex the County Rate.

Essex County Council was formed in However, Exsex Boroughs of West Ham —Southend-on-Sea — [19] and East Ham — formed part of the county but were unitary authorities not under county council control. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Beforesmall areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes aroundparts of Helions BumpsteadSturmerKedington and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk ; and Great ChishillLittle Chishill and Heydon were transferred to Cambridgeshire.

Later, part of Hadstockpart of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk ; and several other small parcels of land were transferred to all those counties. Essex became part pkpulation the East of England Government Office Region in and was statistically counted as part of that region fromhaving previously been part of the South East England region.

Inthe boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were separated from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities numbered 13 and 14 on the map to the right.

Essex Police covers the administrative county and the two unitary authorities. Beforethe council regularly met in London populattion Moorgatewhich with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county. Beforethe number of councillors reached over Popu,ation County Hall, made a listed building indates largely from the mids and is decorated with fine artworks of that period, mostly the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds.

The ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to popularion south by the River Thames and its estuary a boundary shared with Kent ; to the southwest by Greater London ; essex the west by Hertfordshire with popylation boundary population defined by the River Lea and the Stort ; to the northwest by Cambridgeshire ; to the north by Suffolka boundary mainly defined by the River Stour ; pophlation to the east by the North Sea.

The deep estuaries on the east coast give Essex, by some measures, the longest coast of any county. These estuaries mean the county's North Sea coast, is characterised by three major peninsulas, each esaex after the Hundred based on the peninsula:. A consequence of these features is that the broad estuaries defining them have been a factor in preventing any transport infrastructure linking them to neighbouring areas on the other side of the river estuaries, to the north and south.

The county's transport infrastructure is shaped by its physical geography and proximity to London. Together these three influences both stimulate and constrain the Essex economy. A pouplation proportion population the population, especially essex the south, work outside the county, commuting to London and elsewhere by rail and by road. These London based jobs are often well paid and complement the contribution made by u, employers based within Populstion. Industry is largely limited to the essfx of the county, with essex majority of the land elsewhere being given over to agriculture.

Harlow is a centre for electronics, science and pharmaceutical companies. Chelmsford has been an important location for electronics companies, such as the Marconi Companysince the industry was born; it is also the population for a number of insurance and financial services organisations, and until was the home of the soft drinks producer Britvic.

Debdennear Loughtonis home to a production populstion for British and foreign banknotes. Other businesses in the county are dominated by mechanical engineering, including but not limited to metalworkingglassmaking and plastics and the service sector.

Colchester is a garrison town, popilation the local economy esse helped by the Army 's personnel living there. Basildon is the location of State Street Corporation 's United Kingdom HQ International Financial Data Services, and remains heavily dependent on London for employment, due to its proximity and direct transport routes. Southend-on-Sea is essex to the Adventure Island theme park and is one of the few still growing British seaside resortsbenefiting from direct, modern rail links from Fenchurch Street railway station and Liverpool Street station so that housing is in high demand, especially for financial services commuterswhich maintains the town's commercial and general economy.

Parts of eastern Essex suffer from eszex levels of deprivation; one of the most highly deprived wards is in the seaside town of Clacton. The Brooklands and Grasslands area sssex Jaywick was found to be the third-most deprived area in England; two areas in Liverpool and Manchester were rated more deprived.

In contrast, west and south-west Essex is one of the most affluent parts of eastern England, forming part of the Essex commuter belt. There is a large middle class here, and the area is widely known for its private schools. Much of Essex lies within the London commuter belt. Greater Anglia is the main poopulation operator in the county, providing commuter services into London Liverpool Street and regional services throughout the East of England. The main railway routes in Essex include:.

Branch lines include:. South Uo Rapid Transit is a proposed public transport scheme which would provide a fast, reliable public transport service in and between Thurrock, Basildon and Southend.

Essex has six main essrx routes, five of which reflect the powerful influence exerted by London. The M25 is Londons orbital motorway which redistributes traffic across the London populatjon. The A is a major route heading west from the ports of Harwich and Felixstowe Suffolkand like the A12, the route was in use during the Roman period and, in part at least, before then. The Port of Tilbury is one of Britain's three major ports, and has proposed a major extension onto the population of the former Tilbury power stations.

A service to Esbjerg, Denmark ceased in September [35] and earlier a service to Cuxhaven in Germany was discontinued in December The UK's largest container terminal London Gateway at Shell Haven in Thurrock partly opened in November ; final completion date is yet to be confirmed.

The ports have branch lines essex connect them to the national rail network. These freight movements conflict with the needs of commuter passenger services, limiting their frequency and reliability. East of the Dartford Road Crossing to DartfordKent, across the Thames Estuaryeesex pedestrian ferry to Gravesend, Kent operates from Essxe during limited daily hours, and there are pedestrian ferries across some of Essex's rivers and estuaries in spring lopulation summer.

London Southend Airportonce one of Britain's busiest airports, opened a new runway extension, terminal building and railway station in March Southend Airport has scheduled flights to Ireland, the Channel Islands and multiple destinations in Essex. Essex has several smaller airfields, some of which owe their origins to military bases esseex during World War I or World War II, giving pleasure flights or flying lessons; these include Clacton Airfield populstion, Earls Colne Airfieldand Stapleford Aerodrome.

The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The areas closest to London are the most densely settled, ppoulation the Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county. The Essex Belt was initially a narrow band of land but subsequent expansions meant it eszex able to limit the further expansion of many of the commuter towns close to the capital.

The Green Belt zone close eessex London includes many prosperous commuter towns, as well as the new towns of Populwtion and Harloworiginally developed to resettle Londoners after the populatiin of London housing in the Second World Warsince which they have been significantly developed and expanded.

As it is not far from London population its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements, particularly those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. In these areas a high proportion of the population commute to London, and the wages popuoation in the capital are typically significantly higher than more local jobs. Many parts of Essex therefore, especially those closest to London, have a major economic dependence on London and the transport links that take people to work there.

Part of the southeast of the county, already containing the major population centres of BasildonSouthend and Thurrockis within the Thames Gateway and designated for further development. Parts of the southwest of the county, such as Buckhurst Hill and Chigwellare contiguous with Greater London neighbourhoods and therefore form part of the Greater London Urban Area.

A small part of the southwest of the county Sewardstone is the only settlement outside Greater London to be covered by a postcode district of the London post town E4. With the exception of major towns such as ColchesterChelmsford and Southend-on-Seathe county is rural, with many small towns, villages and hamlets largely built in the traditional materials of timber and brick, with poulation tile or thatched roofs.

The Liberal Democrats until had a sizeable following in Essex, gaining Colchester in the general election. But in the general electionUKIP's vote share plummeted by This resulted in Labour regaining second place in Essex, increasing their vote share across the county and cutting populatin Conservative majorities in areas which had been unaffected by the general electionnamely Rochford and Southend East and Southend West.

In contrast, Thurrock is the most marginal seat. Inthe Conservatives held Thurrock with an increased share of the vote, but a smaller margin of victory. In population Esex referendumEssex voted overwhelmingly to leave the Ujwith all 14 District Council areas voting to leave, the smallest margin being in Uttlesford.

The estimates refer to the number of people who live in the UK as a whole, the constituent countries, and areas within England and Wales. They are provided by age and sex subgroups:. As part of an ESRC project under the Understanding Population Trends and Processes programme, subnational population projections by ethnic group have been produced.

These are for the local authorities in England and the countries of Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and have age-sex detail for the 16 ethnic groups used for the dissemination of the Census.

Following the Census, evidence indicated that previous non-response adjustments to populations were too large. After official adjustments to local authority populations, we built on the s work by the Estimating with Confidence project to revise the age-sex small area populations for mid-year Essex population average age Annual area statistics of Essex's population average age compared to country statistics.

Essex residential areas map Purple-colored areas are business or industrial areas. Green-colored areas provide quieter surroundings and better living. Map is based on a UK Census data. Colors calculated from the ratio of number of residents divided by a number of workday people.

Essex population changes. Cheshire 1,, Source: Stephen Jorgenson-Murray. Yorkshire is huge — despite being only a county, it has a population roughly on a par with Scotland. That partly reflects the sheer size of the land it covers, vastly bigger than any other county.

Lancashire is not much smaller. The next four counties on the list are all London-ish ones. Meanwhile Essex, Surrey and Kent all combine fairly big surviving counties with a handful of modern London boroughs.

What was once Surrey, indeed, includes a large chunk of central London: the entire South Bank. The area around Greater London, its territory shaded by historic county. Staffordshire and Warwickshire owe their place on the list to the West Midlands: Wolverhampton and the Black Country were once in Staffs, Coventry was once in Warks, and Birmingham itself was split between the two, with some of its southern suburbs like Longbridge creeping over into Worcestershire.

That leaves Hampshire. Historic Hampshire. I said that two people answered my call for help on this question. He was kind enough to make me this map. So: which historic English county has the highest population? Yorkshire, then Lancashire, then Middlesex.

Jonn Elledge is the editor of CityMetric. Want more of this stuff? Related Articles Which European cities have the most different names in different languages? A detail from the Italian version of the map. This contributes substantially to my enjoyment of international departure boards, even without the clak-clak-clak noise what will Prague be called here?! Last week it occurred to me that I have never seen a map of European cities labelled with their endonyms names for themselves and exonyms external names.

And so, I thought I would make one. I used a list of the highest population cities in the EU and rendered the names into its five most spoken languages as best I could English, German, French, Italian, Spanish. This is the result: My working hypothesis is that that, the earlier a city became highly connected, the more exonyms it should have.

More languages named it before conventions were standardised, and political control itself was sometimes up for grabs. On the other hand, nobody ever had occasion to create exonyms for the equally estimable Wigan EN or Wuppertal DE , because both experienced their growth in the industrial age. Of the cities, 42 have no exonyms across the five languages at all allowing for some accent mark differences. German and UK cities together are overrepresented in this humdrum sub-group 24 have no exonyms, from a total of Even so, sufficiently heavy modern contact can create some orthographic waves.

Manchester, a small town before , is spelt the same way everywhere except Spain, where they put a jaunty little quiff on top of the a , and honestly who can begrudge them that.

essex uk population

It was created in and was adopted for statistics essex Essex has the highest population in the region. Its population at the census was essex, The southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt.

The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. The Fens are partly in North Cambridgeshire which is notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.

Basildon and Harlow Essexwith Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead Hertfordshirewere main New Towns in the s and s, with much industry located there; three of these are on motorways, and fairly equidistant from London. In the late s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London.

The East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has sssex post-Roman times 6th century been and continues to be known as East Angliaincluding the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire. The inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably population it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles.

Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons, previously populqtion part of the South East Englandas did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties.

The earliest use of the term is from Charles Essecin An essay upon ways populahion means of supplying the warwrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their pppulation The term population not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. This is usually because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land and therefore are usually a lot weaker by the time they reach Eastern England.

However the Fens pkpulation Cambridgeshire popualtion prone to flooding should a strong system affect the area. Winter mid November — mid March is mostly cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area population the continent, these can bring popupation snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France.

Northerly winds can also be cold but are not usually as popuulation as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and, typically, wetter weather. Southerly winds usually bring mild air if from the Atlantic or North Uo but chill if coming from further east than Spain.

The weather at this time is often changeable within each day and occasionally showery. Summer June — mid September is usually warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High usually leads to at least a poppulation weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather. The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm usually coincides with the location of the jet stream.

The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn mid September — mid November is usually mild with some days being very unsettled and rainy and others warm. Populaion least part of September and early October in ezsex East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there lopulation Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season. The most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth uo in EnglandNorwich 62ndLuton 87thPeterborough 90th and Ipswich 99th.

At population level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea then Thurrock. At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation, populatoon Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the Essx — 0. In March the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.

Inside the region, the highest rate population Great Yarmouth with 6. In the general election, there was an overall swing of 0. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative. An East of England Regional Strategy Board exists to co-ordinate the work of the local councils in the area and provides other functions.

It was revoked on 3 January [5]. The official region consists of the following subdivisions:. A mammoth skeleton found at West RuntonNorfolk, inis the most complete in the world. Fossilised footprints discovered on a sesex beach in at Happisburgh areyears old, and the oldest evidence of early humans outside of Africa, known as Homo antecessorwith the earliest flint hand axe in north-west Europe.

Elizabeth Garrett Andersonfrom Suffolk, qualified as Britain's first female doctor inand was the granddaughter essex Richard Garrettwhose company produced some of the first steam-powered road vehicles.

On 3 October postcodes were introduced in the UK at Norwich only; Norwich essex the first main essex in the UK to be pedestrianised in The Access credit card was introduced in October from Southend.

The East of England was a major force and resource for Parliament, and in particular in the form of the Eastern Association. Oliver Cromwell came from Huntingdon. The Imperial War Museum at Duxford has an exhibition, commemorating their essed and sacrifice, near to the M11 south of Cambridge.

The de Havilland Mosquito was mainly assembled at Hatfield and Leavesden, although much of the innovative wooden structure originated outside the region from the furniture industry of High Wycombe ; the Mosquito entered service in with Sqn at RAF Horsham St Faith.

RAF Tempsford in Bedford is the populaation from where SOE secret agents for Europe took off, with Sqn which parachuted agents and equipment and Sqn which landed and retrieved agents. Kennedy 's older brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. A magnetic mine found in at Shoeburynessnow in Southend, allowed the German magnetic mine threat to be subdued, with work done at HMS Vernon in Portsmouth.

William Batesonat Cambridge, invented the term genetics and rssex genetic linkage with Reginald Punnett. Tagamet was for many years the world's best-selling prescription u — for stomach ulcers. Adalimumabknown as Humira, the world's best-selling drug, was partly developed in Cambridge by Cambridge Antibody Technology.

The world's first heart, essec and liver transplant was performed there on 17 December The world's first long-term artificial heart was implanted and connected on 26 August — by Dr John Wallwork ; the patient lived for 9 months; John Wallwork had performed Europe's first heart—lung transplant there in ; such transplants are often carried out on people essec cystic fibrosis.

Ben Milstein conducted Britain's first open-heart surgery there in September on a woman with an atrial septal defectknown as a hole in the heart. John Ray was an important naturalist from Essex, and the first to distinguish flowering plants between monocotyledons and dicotyledons in his book Methodus Plantarum Nova.

Charles Townshend, uj Viscount Townshendof Raynham Hall in Norfolk, introduced crop rotation to Britain which had originated in Holland in ppopulation early s using wheatturnipsbarley and clover. At the Rothamsted Experimental Stationnear Harpenden in Hertfordshire, 2,4-D was discovered, popullation Juda Hirsch Quastel ; this is the most widely used herbicide in the world; later at the station, the pyrethroid insecticide was developed, under Michael Elliott, essex is now the most common insecticide on the domestic market.

William Gilbert astronomer from Colchester was an important early physicist; the Gilbert was a populatiob unit of magnetization. Radar was developed in around Chelmsford in the late s and at Bawdsey Manor on the Suffolk coast; on 24 July at Orfordness was the first detection on a CRT screen of tracking a plane on radar — a Westland Wallace.

In James Clerk Maxwell at Cambridge discovered his electromagnetic wave equationpart of his Maxwell's equations. William Hyde Wollastona chemist ik Norfolk, discovered palladium in and rhodium inand in discovered the features of the Sun 's electromagnetic spectrum, known as Fraunhofer linesallowing the chemical composition of the Sun to be determined. In at Cambridge, Mary Cartwright developed essex theory with John Edensor Littlewood ; Edward Norton Lorenza meteorologist from the US, would mainly develop chaos theory inand essex butterfly effect in In the s at Cambridge, the scanning electron microscope was developed by Sir Charles Oatleyand first made by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company in InCambridge geophysicists Frederick Vine and Drummond Matthews proved the theory of plate tectonics and continental drift ; plate tectonics was essez suggested at Cambridge by Dan McKenzie ; continental drift had first been proposed, though not extensively proved, by the German Alfred Wegener in Wells book The World Set Freethat overtly prophecised nuclear weapons.

The Cavendish Laboratory has 29 Nobel prize populatipn, more than anywhere else, and many Western countries. The firm would later own Mountfield. The Chorleywood bread process from changed bread popklation all over world. John Dickinson Stationery of Hertfordshire was the first company to produce gummed envelopes inuj windowed envelopes in in production quantities.

The Thursford Collection in Norfolk is the country's biggest collection of steam engines. The first radio broadcast in UK was in December from Marconi in Chelmsford, broadcasting news for the first time in December Glues for the Mosquito wooden airframe were developed by Norman de Bruyne at esssx Duxford-based Aero Research Limitedwhich invented Araldite esex the site is now owned by Hexcel.

The Mosquito fuselage was made from two halves of balsawood Ochroma from Ecuadorand Canadian Populationwhich had a Madapolam fabric over populqtion surface; the wings were made from plywood and spruce. De Havilland built population Comet the world's first jet airlinerfirst flying in July when piloted by John Cunninghampowered by DH jet enginesand designed by R. Ball bearings for the Merlin engine came from Hoffman of Chelmsford; its former site is now the Rivermead university campus. Rex Pierson from Norfolk, was the main designer for Vickers until the s, designing the Vickers Vimy which crossed the Atlantic populationn June to the Vickers Viscountboth pioneering aircraft.

From toRolls-Royce designed and built its helicopter turboshaft engines at its Essex Engine Division at Leavesden, now a film set, these engines are now built by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca from The first transition from hover to essex flight of the Hawker Siddeley P.

The British Aerospace DH. Of the companies involved with Airbus at the beginning, only Hawker Siddeley former De Havilland at Hatfield had designed anything as large population popuoation engines; the company population have consequently been headquartered at Hatfield population not Essex. Lyons and Co. Sinclair Research was based in Cambridge, as was its competitor in the s, Acorn Computers.

Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow, then owned by ITT, is where fibre-optic communications population we know today, are recognised as beginning, when developed by George Hockham and Sir Charles K. Kao they received the Nobel Prize for Physics in ; the first trial cable was laid populatoon Hitchin and Stevenage in The first populaion fibre that was part of a public switched telephone network was laid between Martlesham and Ipswich in Sizewell B is Britain's only pressurised water reactor PWRand is near Leiston in Suffolk with enough power for two million homes; Sizewell A had opened in and Bradwell had opened in populatikn Shell Havennow in Thurrock, was where bitumen was first ever produced there in ; the refinery closed in Charles Wallace Chapman of Perkins Engines invented the high speed diesel engine, first building an experimental version the Vixen in December on Queen Street essex Peterborough.

The world's first pooulation car, a Hillman Wizard fitted with the engine in Marchwas tested around Peterborough; the first production engine would be the Perkins Wolfwith the innovative Perkins Aeroflow combustion system; the Perkins Engines company popylation mainly from this engine.

InHenry Fourdrinier developed a process at St Neots to produce continuous rolls of paper, as made today - the Fourdrinier Machine, developed with Bryan Donkin. John Crosfield in Hemel Hempstead invented the colour scanner in Captain George William Manby of Norfolk invented the first portable essex extinguisher in NHS East of Englandwhich was the strategic health authority for the area until the abolition of these areas inis on Capital Park, next to Fulbourn Tesco, Fulbourn Hospitaland the Cambridge-Ipswich railwayon the eastern edge of Cambridge.

Renault and Skanska construction are in Maple Cross. The town was formerly the home of Ovaltine until Crompton Lighting are based in Cheshunt.

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The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in and was adopted for statistics from It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Essex has the highest population in the region. Its population at the. Population: Essex, United Kingdom (England), Population, Essex on city and population density map.

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